Map Easter Rising fatalities

Before you create a web app or story map, you'll first create a map of fatalities that occurred during the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin. To do so, you'll first download a spreadsheet of fatalities. This spreadsheet, sourced from Glasnevin Cemetery burial records, national census records, historical newspapers, and historical street directories, contains not only the names and locations of people who died during the Rising but also their affiliation, be it civilian, military, or paramilitary. You'll convert this spreadsheet into a point layer and add it to a map on ArcGIS Online. Then, you'll symbolize the layer and configure pop-ups to clearly differentiate civilian fatalities from other kinds of fatalities.

Download the data

First, you'll download the data and familiarize yourself with the information it contains.

  1. Download the Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 comma-separated values (CSV) file.
  2. Locate the downloaded file on your computer and open it.
    Note:

    If the spreadsheet opens in protected mode, click the button to enable editing. Depending on the spreadsheet application you use, the appearance of your spreadsheet may differ from the example images.

    Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 spreadsheet

    The spreadsheet contains a wide variety of information regarding fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising. The fields range from basic information about the deceased (name, age, gender, place of death) to information about their affiliation and occupation. The Biography field, near the end of the spreadsheet, gives a brief description of the deceased.

  3. Scroll to the right of the spreadsheet until you locate the Place of Death Latitude and Place of Death Longitude fields.
    Note:

    Depending on the program you're using to view the file, you may need to expand the table's fields in order to see the full field names.

    Place of Death fields

    These fields give the geographic coordinates of each fatality. You'll use these fields when geocoding the spreadsheet to display the fatality locations on a map. Some of the fatalities have no information for these fields because no place of death was ever recorded. Many of the fatalities with incomplete records are either leading figures in the rebellion who have been included for their historical importance or children who have been included for their historical underrepresentation. These fatalities will not be mapped when you convert the spreadsheet into a data layer, but their information might be useful for reference or for probing deeper into the questions posed by this project.

  4. When you are finished exploring the information, close the spreadsheet. If prompted to save your changes, don't save.

Create the map

Next, you'll create a map of the 1916 Easter Rising fatalities. Your map will represent all fatalities where there is extant geographic information about the place of death. First, you'll begin a new map. Then, you'll navigate to your area of interest: Dublin, Ireland.

  1. Sign in to your ArcGIS organizational account or into ArcGIS Enterprise using a named user account.
    Note:

    If you don't have an organizational account, you can sign up for an ArcGIS free trial.

  2. At the top of your organization home page, click Map.

    Map button

    Map Viewer opens. The map extent for a new map is set to the default extent of your organization.

    Note:

    If you're in a new ArcGIS Online session, clicking Map opens a new map. Otherwise, it opens the last map you were using. If an existing map opens, click New Map in the upper right corner of the page and choose Create New Map.

  3. To the upper right of the map, in the search box, type Dublin, Ireland and press Enter.

    The map zooms to Dublin, the capital of Ireland.

    Dublin, Ireland

  4. Close the Search result pop-up.
  5. If you want, explore the city using the Pan and Zoom tools.

    The map shows the current landscape of Dublin. In 1916, when the Easter Rising happened, it looked much different. When you add the fatalities to the map as a layer, you should keep in mind how the city may have changed in the century between now and the time of the event.

Create a map layer

Next, you'll create a new layer based on the spreadsheet of fatalities you opened earlier. To do so, you'll geocode the spreadsheet based on its coordinate information. Geocoding takes a table of data that contains geographic information (either geographic coordinates or addresses) and converts the table into a data layer that can be added to a map.

  1. On the ribbon, click Add and choose Add Layer from File.

    Add Layer from File

  2. In the Add Layer from File window, click the Choose File button.

    Another window opens, showing your computer's file directory.

  3. Browse to and choose the Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 CSV file.
  4. Click Import Layer.

    The Add CSV Layer window opens. This window allows you to choose which fields in the CSV file will be used to determine the location of features. As you learned when you explored the file earlier, you want to use the Place of Death Latitude and Place of Death Longitude fields.

  5. For Locate features by, confirm that Coordinates is chosen.

    Locate features by Coordinates

  6. In the list of fields, scroll until you locate the Place of Death Latitude and Place of Death Longitude fields. For each field, in the Location Fields column, click Not used and choose the corresponding Latitude or Longitude location type.

    Location Fields

  7. Click Add Layer.

    The map zooms out to show most of Ireland and Great Britain, and the Change Style pane opens. Additionally, a window warns you that some features have not been added to the map because they are missing location data. You already learned that some of the data was missing when you explored the spreadsheet.

  8. In the Warning window, click OK.

    The map now contains many points, corresponding to individual fatalities in the CSV file. The map zoomed out because some of the fatalities occurred outside of Dublin, including locations like Cork and even London. The points have been symbolized by default based on a random attribute field in the table. In the example images, they have been symbolized by the surname of the deceased, but your default symbology may vary.

    Default symbology of fatalities

    Because most of the fighting and fatalities occurred in Dublin, you'll return the map extent to where it was previously.

  9. Use the mouse scroll wheel or Zoom In button to zoom back to Dublin.

    Fatalities in Dublin

    The fatalities are primarily clustered around the center of the city, where most of the population lived in 1916. However, the current symbology makes it difficult to determine spatial patterns other than where the fatalities tended to occur. You'll adjust the symbology later. For now, you'll rename the layer.

  10. At the bottom of the Change Style pane, click Done.
  11. In the Contents pane, point to the easter rising fatalities 1916 layer, click the More Options button, and choose Rename.

    Rename

  12. Change the name to Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 and click OK.

Symbolize the layer

Next, you'll change the symbology of the Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 layer. First, you'll symbolize the layer as a heat map to see where fatalities were most densely clustered. You also want to examine how civilians were affected during the event compared to actual combatants (Irish rebels, British military, and Dublin police or constabulary forces). To do so, you'll symbolize the layer again, this time by the affiliation of the fatalities.

  1. In the Contents pane, point to the Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 layer and click the Change Style button.

    Change Style button

    The Change Style pane reopens.

  2. For Choose an attribute to show, choose Show location only.

    Show location only option

  3. For Select a Drawing Style, select Heat Map.

    Heat Map drawing style

    The map symbology changes automatically.

    Fatalities heat map

    The heat map represents the concentration of fatalities in certain areas, with red and yellow areas having a higher concentration. Many of the highest-density areas correspond to key locations during the Easter Rising, such as rebel garrisons. From the heat map, there appear to be several areas of intense fighting scattered throughout the city, indicating a chaotic and violent event that would be more likely to affect civilians. The heat map supports the assessment you made based on the affiliation of the fatalities: that the Rising was more than a clash between Irish rebels and the British army, but a broad and disorderly struggle that stretched throughout the city.

    Next, you'll symbolize the layer by the affiliation of each fatality.

  4. In the Change Style pane, for Choose an attribute to show, choose Affiliation.

    Change Style attribute

    The symbols on the map and the map legend change automatically.

    Symbolized fatalities

  5. Click Done.
  6. In the Contents pane, click the Show Map Legend button.

    Show Map Legend button

    The map's legend, which is based on the new symbology, opens.

    Legend

    The colors of each fatality correspond to a certain type of affiliation. The most common affiliations are Civilian (Red) and Irish Volunteers (Blue), with the other affiliations corresponding to either other organizations of Irish fighters, the British army, or the Dublin police. While Irish combatants were a significant portion of the total fatalities, the civilian deaths make up over half of the total deaths. Although historic commemorations of the Easter Rising primarily focused on those who fought, mapping the Rising through this lens reveals a broader range of experiences.

  7. In the Legend pane, click the Show Contents of Map button.

    Show Contents of Map button

Configure pop-ups

Before you ask some more in-depth questions about the data you've mapped, you'll configure pop-ups for the layer. Pop-ups are windows of information that appear when you click a feature on a web map. By narrowing down the information that appears, you can improve your map's use as an information resource for both yourself and others who view it.

  1. On the map, click any feature to open its pop-up.

    Default pop-up

    The default pop-up contains all of the attribute fields that were in the original Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 CSV file. A lot of this information, such as the latitude and longitude fields or the fields about home address and cemetery, are not particularly relevant to how the Easter Rising affected civilians. You'll configure the layer's pop-up to contain fewer fields of information in order to emphasize the ones that are more important.

  2. Close the pop-up.
  3. In the Contents pane, point to the Easter Rising Fatalities 1916 layer, click the More Options button, and choose Configure Pop-up.

    The Configure Pop-up pane opens. You'll give your pop-up a title that contains the name of the person who was killed. Then, you'll change the pop-up contents to show a smaller list of field attributes.

  4. For Pop-up Title, click the Add Field Name button (the plus sign) and choose Forename {Forename}.

    Forename field

    The word Forename, in brackets, is added to the text box.

  5. Click the text box and add a space after {Forename}. Then, click the Add Field Name button and choose Surname {Surname}.

    Pop-up Title

    Now, the pop-up will display the fatality's first and last name as the title. Next, you'll configure the attributes that appear in the pop-up.

  6. For Pop-up Contents, click Configure Attributes.

    Configure Attributes

    The Configure Attributes window opens. This window contains a list of all attribute fields in the layer. You'll remove most of the attributes, leaving only some basic information about the person who was killed, such as their age and biography.

  7. Check the Display box to check all fields. Then, check the box again to uncheck all fields.

    Display check box

  8. Scroll through the list of fields and check the Age and Biography fields.

    Age and Biography fields

    Note:

    If you're interested in comparing other kinds of information, such as the religion or occupation of the deceased, feel free to check other fields.

  9. Click OK. In the Configure Pop-up pane, click OK.
  10. Click any feature on your map.

    Configured pop-up

    Note:

    Because of the incomplete nature of death records, some of the features may not have information for the Biography, Age, or even Forename fields.

  11. Close the pop-up.

    Lastly, you'll save the map.

  12. On the ribbon, click Save and choose Save As.

    Save As

    The Save Map window opens.

  13. For Title, type Easter Rising 1916 to Present.
  14. For Tags, type Easter Rising, 1916, Dublin, Ireland, and Fatalities (press Enter between each tag).
  15. For Summary, copy and paste the following text: A map showing fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin.

    Save Map window

  16. Click Save Map.

Discussion

  1. Although in this module you symbolized the fatalities by affiliation, there are several other attribute fields by which the layer could be symbolized. Try symbolizing the layer by gender, religion, or age. Which demographic groups were affected the most by the Rising? Which were affected the least? What might the representation of certain demographic groups among the fatalities tell you about the nature of the Rising?
  2. When symbolizing the fatalities using the Heat Map drawing style, there is one hot spot with a higher intensity of fatalities than any others. Zoom to this hot spot's exact location. What was located there? Why might the highest number of fatalities have occurred there? What is located at the sites of the other clusters?
  3. The basemap in your map uses information from Dublin's contemporary geography. How was the geography of Dublin in 1916 different from its geography today? How might the urban layout in 1916 have affected where battles and skirmishes occurred?

    For more evidence to support your answers, try using the following resources to learn more about the historical context and chronology of the Easter Rising:

You've created your map of fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin, Ireland. While the data that you've explored has given you a better idea of the civilian experiences during the event and the extent that they were affected, you haven't yet compared those experiences to how the event is experienced today through commemorative events and historical recollection.


Create a Public Information web app

Previously, you created a map showing fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin. Next, you'll compare the location of fatalities to the location of social media posts commemorating the Rising. You'll do so by creating a Public Information web app, which tracks social media activity in real time based on search terms that you specify. Once you've created the app, you'll think critically about how the Easter Rising is remembered today versus how it was experienced in 1916.

Share your map as a web app

Before you create the web app, you'll share your map so others can access it. Then, you'll choose from a list of web app templates and configure some basic settings about the app.

  1. If necessary, open your Easter Rising 1916 to Present map.
  2. On the ribbon, click Share.

    Share button

  3. For Choose who can view this map, check the Everyone (public) box.

    The box next to your organization's name is also checked automatically.

    A Share warning window opens with instructions about sharing the URL with people outside of your organization.

  4. Click OK.
  5. Click Create a Web App.

    Create a Web App button

    The Create a New Web App window opens. You can choose to build a custom web app with Web AppBuilder for ArcGIS, or you can choose from a list of configurable app templates. You'll choose an existing template that includes geolocated social media posts.

  6. On the Configurable Apps tab, click the Map Social Media tab to filter the list. Click the Public Information template.

    Public Information web app template

    A pane opens with more information about the template.

  7. Click Create Web App.
  8. Leave the Title and Tags information unchanged. For Summary, copy and paste the following text: A web app that compares fatalities in the 1916 Easter Rising to contemporary social media commemorating the event.
  9. Click Done.

    The Configure window opens with a preview of the app, which includes your web map with a title and a legend. The window also has several tabs with options for configuring the web app.

  10. Above the legend, click Layers.

    Layers button

    The list of layers contains the fatalities layer, which is turned on, as well as five media layers for different social media platforms (Instagram, Flickr, Twitter, YouTube, and Webcams.travel), which are turned off. In particular, you'll use the Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube media layers, because they have options to filter the results that appear by a search term that you choose.

  11. For Media Layers, check the Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube boxes.

    The layers are turned on. Icons representing posts of Flickr and YouTube appear on the map. However, you cannot view Twitter posts unless you sign in.

  12. If you have a Twitter account, click Sign in, sign in to your account, and authorize your web app to use Twitter.
    Note:

    If you don't have a Twitter account, you can still continue with the lesson—your app will simply have less variety in the kinds of social media it contains. If you would like to sign up for an account, you can join Twitter using their sign up page.

    Sign in button for Twitter

    Once Twitter is authorized, Twitter posts appear on the map as well.

    Social media posts in Dublin

    Note:

    The social media posts update in real time. Your map may look different from the examples.

  13. Click any of the social media icons on the map.

    Flickr post in Dublin

    A pop-up opens, showing the social media post that was created or tagged at that location. However, the web app currently contains all social media posts in Dublin. You're concerned only with social media posts specifically about the 1916 Easter Rising, so you'll configure the web app to narrow down the results.

  14. Close the pop-up.

Configure social media options

Next, you'll configure your web app to display only social media posts related to the 1916 Easter Rising. You'll also make the relevant media layers visible by default and disable the media layers you won't use in your app.

  1. In the pane to the left of the Configure window, click the Social Media Feeds tab.
  2. Under Flickr Options, check the Visible box. For Search Keywords, type 1916.

    Flickr Options

  3. Under Twitter Options, make the layer visible by default and type 1916 as the search keyword.
  4. Under YouTube Options, make the layer visible by default and type 1916 as the search keyword.

    Additionally, you'll disable the Instagram and Webcams.travel media layers so that they do not appear in the list of layers.

  5. Under Instagram Options, uncheck Enable Instagram Layer.

    Instagram Options

  6. Under Webcams.travel Options, uncheck Enable Webcams Layer.
  7. Click Save to preview your changes to the app.

    By default, the Flickr, Twitter, and YouTube media layers are active. In the list of layers, there are no longer options to turn on the Instagram and Webcams.travel layers. Now that the media layers are configured, your web app is mostly done. The posts that appear on the map are much more likely to be relevant to the 1916 Easter Rising. You could broaden or narrow the results that appear with different search keywords, but what you have already is sufficient to start exploring the relationship between how the Rising was experienced and how it is remembered.

Configure additional options

Before you finish your app, you'll configure a few other options that are available. In particular, you'll write a paragraph to explain your app to users and you'll update the search settings to use Ireland's country code.

  1. Click the General tab.

    These options allow you to add text that appears in the About pane of your app. You can also change the title of the app. The current title, Easter Rising 1916 to Present, is fine, so you'll leave the Application Title parameter unchanged.

  2. For Application Summary, type a paragraph describing the map and its purpose. If you'd like, you can copy and paste the following example summary:

    This app shows the locations of fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising as well as social media posts related to the Rising. The fatalities are symbolized by the affiliation of the deceased. The purpose of this app is to compare how the Easter Rising was experienced by the people of Dublin to how it is remembered in Dublin today.

  3. Click the Search tab.

    These options allow you to determine how the search bar in the upper right corner of the app works. The search bar might be useful if users want to quickly navigate to a specific street or location in Dublin. To ensure that the search bar works for Irish place-names, you'll edit its geocoder—or address locator—to support both English and Irish Gaelic languages. You'll confine the search to the map extent, in order to keep your map's focus on Dublin.

  4. Next to ArcGIS World Geocoding Service, click Edit.

    Search Settings

    The ArcGIS World Geocoding window opens. The ArcGIS World Geocoder is Esri's default address geocoding service. It translates addresses typed in the search bar into geographic locations on the map.

  5. Check the Constrain search within map box.
  6. For Country Code, type IRL (short for Ireland).

    Esri World Geocoder options

  7. Click Save.

    The remaining options allow you to add or remove certain elements from your app. For instance, in the Options tab, you can change some of the navigation and usability tools on the map. None of these options are necessary for your app, so you'll leave them unchanged.

  8. Click Save. Then, click Close.

    The Configure: Easter Rising 1916 to Present window closes. The item details page for the web app opens. With this page, you can add a description of your map and a thumbnail image. You can also credit data sources or set terms of use. For now, you'll open the app.

  9. Click View Application.

    View Application button

    The application opens in a new window.

    Final application

You can use this app to answer the questions at the end of this lesson.

Discussion

  1. Compared to fatalities, where are the social media posts clustered?
  2. How closely does the content of these posts (both textual and visual) correspond with the 2016 narratives of the 1916 Rising? (The Century Ireland website can be of help for answering this question, but you can also broaden the scope by searching on your own for other types of narratives about the event and subsequent commemoration.)
  3. After you have conducted some preliminary research and are more familiar with the 1916 Rising, go to your app's item details page and click Configure App. Change the social media search term to another related term. Experiment with different terms for each social media platform. What results and narratives do these changes produce? What insights does this type of approach generate for telling the story of public history?

The previous module illustrated how GIS can add visual and spatial dimensions to historical data, while this module demonstrated the importance of geography to the field of history. By being able to digitally juxtapose historical and contemporary data, historical scholars are able to create new types of public history engagements. This new use of geography, or neogeography, can be defined theoretically, technologically, and territorially. From a theoretical perspective, neogeography is a both communal and subjective use of geographic techniques and tools, generally by people who would not normally be considered geographers. From a technological perspective, it involves social media and telecommunications technologies. From a territorial perspective, it synthesizes actual places and virtual spaces into digital ecosystems. Your app, for instance, embodies many of these qualities through its conjunction of traditional geographic data (the fatalities layer) with crowdsourced social media data.

The emergence of neogeography and these new digital ecosystems promises to change not only the ways in which data on human history can be gathered and studied, but also how historical scholarship is expressed and, more profoundly, the manner in which it is assessed, interpreted, and communicated.[1]


Create a Story Map Tour

Previously, you created a web app that compared fatalities in the 1916 Easter Rising to contemporary social media posts about the event. The subsequent discussion questions asked you to think about the relationship between how the Rising occurred and the narratives by which it is remembered today. Next, you'll tell some of these narratives by creating a Story Map Tour. This story map will contain geotagged images of historical sites and examples of public commemoration in order to tell the story of the 1916 Easter Rising. Users will be able to explore your narrative, engaging actively with the story of the Easter Rising to reach their own conclusions about the event.

Share your map as a Story Map Tour

You'll start building your story map in a similar way to how you started building your web app in the previous module. First, you'll open your web map.

  1. If necessary, close your web app. Browse to your Content page.
  2. Next to your Easter Rising 1916 to Present web map (not the web mapping application), click the three horizontal dots and choose Open in Map Viewer.

    Open in map viewer

    Your web map opens. You'll access the list of web map and story map templates through the Share window.

  3. On the ribbon, click Share. In the Share window, click Create a Web App.
  4. In the Create a New Web App window, click the Build a Story Map tab.

    Build a Story Map

    The list of app templates changes to include only story map templates. You'll use the Story Map Tour template, which allows you to combine your map with sequential, geotagged photographs and text to better tell your map's story.

  5. Scroll through the list of templates and click Story Map Tour.

    Story Map Tour template

    A pane opens with an explanation about the Story Map Tour template.

  6. Click Create Web App.

    As before, you'll choose the title, tags, and summary. To differentiate your story map from the web app you created previously, you'll give it a different name.

  7. In the Create a New Web App window, change the title to Easter Rising 1916 Commemoration. Leave the tags unchanged.
  8. For the summary, type Map of Dublin, Ireland, showing the locations of fatalities during the 1916 Easter Rising, images of present day sites, and exhibitions of public commemoration.
  9. Click Done.

    The Map Tour Builder opens. This builder will help you put together your story map and tell the narrative of the Easter Rising. Because this kind of story map uses images as well as maps and geographic data, a window opens and asks whether your images are located online or whether you'll upload them. Currently, you have no images to use in your story map, so you'll create an empty layer to which you can later add your images. (Later, you'll be provided with images to use.)

  10. Under I need to upload my images, click the ArcGIS button.

    I need to upload my images

    The Create hosted Map Tour layer window opens. A Map Tour layer is a type of feature layer for use in a Story Map Tour. It is typically a layer of points, with each point representing the location of an image. When users click a point, the image will appear in the Story Map Tour. The layer you create will have no points until you upload images to it. For now, you'll choose the layer's name.

  11. For Layer name, type Easter Rising Images. To make the layer name unique, add your name or initials to the end.

    Create hosted Map Tour layer window

    The default folder where the layer will be saved is the root folder. This folder is fine, but if you have other folders, you can change the location.

  12. Click Create the layer. In the Add a new tour point window, click Cancel.

    Story Configuration window by default

Upload photographs

Your story map currently contains your web map with fatalities, but little else. Next, you'll upload photographs of historic locations and commemorative sites around Dublin to the Story Map layer you created when you began the story map. For the purposes of this lesson, you'll be provided with images to use. As you upload the images, you'll also add textual captions and other information for users to read. Additionally, the images you use are not already geotagged, so you will geotag them manually based on coordinate information that will be provided to you.

  1. Download the Dublin Images zipped file. Extract the file folder to a location you can easily access.
  2. Open the folder on your computer and take a look at the images inside.

    Dublin Images folder

    The images, 43 in total, show a wide variety of historic locations around Dublin. Normally, you would have to take your own images or find them online. These images were taken by the author of the lesson. Unless you're very familiar with Dublin's contemporary and historical geography, however, you may not know what all of these images depict or their significance to the 1916 Easter Rising. Additionally, you don't know where in Dublin to geotag each image. You'll download a spreadsheet of information about the images to help you.

  3. Download the Dublin Images Information spreadsheet. (Alternatively, you can consult this text file with the same information.)
  4. Open the spreadsheet.

    Dublin Images Information spreadsheet

    The spreadsheet contains a description, location, latitude, and longitude for each image. The contents of this spreadsheet will make up much of your story map (but feel free to add more information based on your own research). However, you still have several important decisions to make before you begin uploading images and adding data to your story map. In particular, you'll decide which images to show (or whether to show all of them) and in what order to arrange them. Should the images be arranged geographically or thematically? Perhaps they should be arranged in a way to present a certain narrative or understanding of the Easter Rising. Just as if you were writing a historical story or essay, you should outline or storyboard your content before creating your story map.

  5. Take some time to plan which images you'll include in your story map and in what order they'll appear.
    Tip:

    The more images you include, the broader your narrative will be. For the purposes of this exercise, try to include somewhere between 10 and 20. If you'd like, feel free to use all of them, and focus instead on the order in which they'll be arranged.

  6. When you've decided on your images, return to your story map. Click Add.

    Add button

    The Add a new tour point window opens. This window creates a point in the story map layer you created earlier based on an image and information that you specify.

  7. On the Media tab, click Select or drop picture. Browse to the Dublin Images folder and choose the first image that you want to appear in your story map.
    Note:

    The example graphics will follow the steps necessary to create the example story map. You can follow that story map as a guide if you have trouble creating your own narrative.

    Media image

    The image and its thumbnail are added to the window. Depending on the image you chose, you may encounter additional information, such as the type of device that took the image and the date the image was taken. If an image is larger than required, you may also see a message allowing you to choose whether to scale down the image or keep it at its original resolution.

  8. If necessary, select Change picture resolution to 725x725px.
  9. Click the Information tab. For Name, give the image a name based on its content (or base it on the file name). For Caption, copy and paste the description of the image in the Dublin Images Information spreadsheet.

    Information tab

  10. Click the Location tab. Add the latitude and longitude values from the Dublin Images Information spreadsheet and press Enter.
    Note:

    The image may have a latitude and longitude value by default. However, these values can be incorrect. Be sure to use the latitude and longitude values in the spreadsheet.

    Location tab

  11. Click Add Tour Point.

    First tour point

    The tour point is added to the map. A thumbnail appears in the bar at the bottom of the screen, and the image, title, and description appear to the left of the map. You can edit the title or description by clicking the pencil icons to the upper right of each field.

  12. Follow the plan you made earlier to add the rest of the images to the story map in the correct order.

    Once you finish adding images, you can rearrange their order if you'd like.

  13. Click Organize.

    Organize button

    The Organize the tour window opens. You can use this window to drag tour points into a new order. Additionally, you can also choose to make the first tour point an introduction. Doing so will remove the image from the carousel of images and instead use it as title page for your story map.

  14. If you'd like, reorder your tour points or use your first point as an introduction. Click Apply.

    You can also change some basic settings about your story map, such as its layout and color scheme.

  15. Click Settings.

    Settings button

  16. Change settings as you see fit to best represent your story.
    Note:

    For more information about the settings you can change, try the Learn ArcGIS project Get Started with Story Maps.

  17. When you're finished changing settings, click Apply.

    Your story map is now complete. You'll save it before sharing it with others.

  18. Click Save. Then, click Share.

    The Share your Tour window opens. The window informs you that your tour has already been shared publicly (it was shared the same way as your original web map). The window provides a URL to your story map that you can copy and paste to show others.

  19. When you have copied the URL, click Close.

Discussion

In The Landscape of Time (2002), John Lewis Gaddis linked the ancient practice of mapmaking with the three-part conception of time (past, present, and future) that many historians apply to their work. Both practices explain infinitely complex human and environmental interactions by imposing abstract grids over them, such as hours and days or longitude and latitude. Observing this phenomenon, Gaddis asks, "What if we were to think of history as a kind of mapping?"[1] He argues that people discern similar types of patterns in historical and geographical narratives, and that history itself is a kind of landscape. This landscape metaphor accommodates varying degrees of complexity, not only as a reflection of scale but also for the information available at any given time concerning a particular landscape, geographical or historical.

In addition, as the digital historian Alexander von Lünen argues, "rather than a visualization tool, GIS should be used as a painting tool; a tool to creatively engage with one's sources. Historians need to make a decision: will they remain in the 'painting by numbers' domain or will they develop into true GIS artists, abandoning the imitation game and transforming GIS into a genuine vehicle for historic inquiry?"[2] Through the use of story maps, web apps, and social media, you can make more creative inquiries into historical and geographical narratives.

Lastly, digital history and historical GIS practices operate at the intersection of the arts and sciences and are shaping new discourses in the digital humanities. They provide studies in neogeography with alternative scenarios for modeling landscape, shaped by human history. The GIS applications outlined in the preceding lessons can help historians (and humanities scholars) add visual and spatial dimensions to their digital narratives.[3]

You've created a Story Map Tour that compared the historical event of the 1916 Easter Rising to various contemporary commemorations and public sites around Dublin. Over the course of the lesson, you used archival data, geospatial technology, and social media platforms to explore and reach conclusions about the relationship between history and historical narrative.

You can find more lessons in the Learn ArcGIS Lesson Gallery.