In the previous lesson, you estimated the amount of deforested area that would have occurred if a proposed road had been built. Now, you'll present your results as part of a finished map layout that you can print or export to a shareable file format. Because you intend to share your finished map with others, it should be presentable and clear. In addition to the map of Rondônia itself, you'll add the following:
- A map legend
- A title and description
- An inset map that shows Rondônia's location in the world
Finally, you'll print or export your map to share your findings with the world.
Prepare the map layout
So far, you've worked in Data View, a map view that allows you to best explore the data layers on your map. To prepare your print map, you'll switch to Layout View, which allows you to see the arrangement of map elements such as legends, scale bars, or titles. Before you switch views, you'll turn on certain layers so that important reference information is visible on your map.
- If necessary, open your Amazon Deforestation map document.
- In the Table Of Contents, turn layers on and off so only the following layers are turned on:
- Amazon Ecoregion
- Brazilian States
- Official Roads
- Planned Road
- Protected Forests
- Deforested Area
- World Imagery Basemap
- Rename the Planned_Road_Buffer layer At-Risk Area and move it below the Planned Road layer.
- In the Table Of Contents, click the At-Risk Area symbol. In the Symbol Selector, change Fill Color to Solar Yellow and Outline Color to No Color.
- Click OK.
The bright yellow color draws attention to this key part of the map. Next, you'll switch to Layout View and design your map for the printed page.
- On the ArcMap main menu, click View and choose Layout View.
You can also switch between Data View and Layout View by clicking the buttons at the lower left of the map.
The map changes to include a frame and rulers that show the dimensions of the layout. The dimensions are in the default measurement units of your software and may be different than those in the following images.
The default layout isn't very appealing. For starters, the layout is vertical, although the extent of your data is horizontal. Furthermore, the layout has no map elements other than some text in the lower right corner that provides the sources for the basemap. You can navigate the layout using the tools on the Layout toolbar, which opened when you switched to Layout View.
Most of the tools on the Layout toolbar are navigation tools with similar functions as the navigation tools with which you are already familiar, such as Zoom Out and Pan. You can still use the tools on the Tools toolbar to navigate the map within the layout.
- On the Layout toolbar, click the Change Layout button.
The Select Template dialog box opens, showing a list of layout templates. You'll use a template that includes a place for a legend, a title, and an inset map.
- In the Select Template dialog box, click the Traditional Layouts tab. Click the LandscapeModernInset.mxd template and click Next.
The window changes to the Data Frame Order dialog box. A data frame is another name for a map. The template you chose has two data frames, one in the main square and one in the smaller square in the lower right. This dialog box allows you to choose which data frame will be displayed in which square. Currently, you only have one data frame: the Layers data frame, where you have placed all your layers so far. You'll learn more about data frames when you create an inset map later in the lesson. For now, you'll ignore this window.
- Click Finish.
The layout changes to reflect the new template.
Besides the main data frame, which contains your map, the layout has spaces for a title, a legend, a text description, and an inset map.
- On the Layout toolbar, click the Zoom Whole Page button.
The layout zooms to cover the entire page. Take note of the rulers above and to the left of the map. When you applied the new template, the dimensions of the layout changed to 16 by 21 inches (the values may be different if you are using another unit of measurement). These are the default dimensions of the template, but they are much larger than a standard printer paper page.
- On the ArcMap main menu, click File and choose Page and Print Setup.
The Page and Print Setup dialog box opens. You'll change the page dimensions to a standard 8.5 by 11 inches (or 215.9 by 279.4 millimeters).
Before you change the page settings, confirm your printer is set to print pages of these dimensions.
- In the Paper section, for Orientation, click Landscape.
- For Map Page Size, check Use Printer Paper Settings and confirm that the page dimensions change to 8.5 by 11 inches (or equivalent units).
- At the bottom of the window, check Scale Map Elements proportionally to changes in Page Size.
This option ensures the existing map elements are automatically resized to fit the new page dimensions.
- Click OK.
The rulers change to reflect the new dimensions. When the map elements were resized, they moved a little and no longer line up with the layout.
- Right-click any blank space in the Layout View and choose Select All Elements.
Every map element is highlighted with a dashed line and selection handles. If you move any element, all selected elements will move with it.
- Drag the map elements to the center of the page.
Try to keep all map elements (with the exception of the legend, which you'll change in the next section) within the dotted line near the border of the page. This dotted line represents the printer margins.
- When you're satisfied with the position of the map elements, click any blank space in the Layout View to clear the selection.
You've prepared the layout of your final map. Next, you'll change the default map elements, beginning with the legend.
Format the legend
A legend shows what the map's symbols represent. Your default legend is so long it sticks out over the top of the layout. In this section, you'll format the legend so it fits on the layout and conveys information as clearly as possible.
- On the map layout, double-click the Legend. At the top of the Legend Properties dialog box, click the General tab.
The General tab allows you to choose which map layers appear in the legend and in what order. By default, the Legend Items list includes every layer on the map, even layers that are turned off. The left and right arrows add or remove items, while the up and down arrows reorder them.
- In the Legend Items list, click Roads and click the arrow button that points left.
The Roads item is removed from the list and will no longer appear in the legend.
- Remove the following items from the legend:
- World Imagery
- Low Resolution 15m Imagery
- High Resolution 60cm Imagery
- High Resolution 30cm Imagery
Select multiple items at once by holding Ctrl and clicking the items.
After they are removed, the list has the following items:
These items reflect the visible layers. You'll reorder the list so the key elements of your analysis appear at the top and the reference layers appear at the bottom.
- In the Legend Items list, click Cities and click the Move to bottom button (the underlined arrow).
The Cities item is moved to the bottom of the list. You can use these arrow buttons to move legend items up and down or to the top or bottom of the list.
- Rearrange the items in the following order:
- Official Roads
- Planned Road
- Deforested Area
- At-Risk Area
- Amazon Ecoregion
- Brazillian States
- Protected Forests
- At the bottom of the Legend Properties dialog box, click Apply. Move the dialog box so you can see the changes on the legend.
The legend is still too tall. You don't want to remove any more list items, but you can break the legend into two columns. Additionally, the layer name and heading of the Cities item are too large compared to the rest of the text.
- In the Legend Properties dialog box, click the Items tab.
- In the list of legend items on the left side of the tab, click Cities to highlight it. In the Item Columns section, check Place item(s) in a new column.
This setting adds a second column that includes the Cities item. Because the Cities item is larger than the others, organizing your columns this way should give you two similarly sized columns.
- In the list of legend items, right-click Cities and choose Properties.
The Legend Item Properties dialog box opens. In this dialog box, you can change the text symbols used by the legend item. Most of your legend items have only one type of text: the label next to the map symbol. The Cities item has a layer name, an attribute heading, and labels that show the values for each symbol.
- In the Legend Item Properties dialog box, click the General tab. Click Layer Name Symbol.
- In the Symbol Selector, change the font size to 7 and remove the bold style.
- Click OK. In the Legend Item Properties dialog box, click Heading Symbol.
- Change the font size to 6, remove the bold style, and click OK.
- In the Legend Item Properties dialog box, click OK. In the Legend Properties dialog box, click OK.
Next, you'll resize the legend and move it to the middle box in the right column of the layout.
- In the middle box, click the Double-click here to enter text string to select it. Right-click it and choose Delete.
- Click the legend to select it. Drag it to the middle box. Click and drag the selection handles around the legend to resize it to fit the box.
Improve the map's clarity
Next, you'll change details of the map and layout to increase clarity. First, you'll add a title. Then, you'll change the color scheme of the rectangles in the layout to match the map. After that, you'll add a description that explains your analysis and cites your sources. Lastly, you'll change the map's scale and add a scale bar so your audience will understand the size of the area your map represents.
- Double-click the text in the title bar.
The Properties dialog box opens.
- In the Text box, type Deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil and click OK.
To include the circumflex accent mark above the second O in Rondônia, copy the title from the step instruction.
Next, you'll change the colors of the rectangles to match your map.
- Double-click the title bar at the top of the layout (but don't click the title text).
The Properties dialog box opens, with options for the rectangle's appearance.
- Change Fill Color to Lotus Pond Green and click OK.
You'll change the other rectangles to a lighter shade of green.
- Double-click the first rectangle to the right of the map.
The rectangle's Properties dialog box opens.
- On the Frame tab, in the Background section, for Color choose Sage Dust. Click OK.
- Change the color of the second rectangle, which contains the legend, to Sage Dust as well.
If you find it difficult to click the rectangle without clicking the legend, move the legend out of the way, change the rectangle's color, and move the legend back.
Next, you'll add a description to explain the purpose of your map and the results of your analysis. You'll also use it to show the sources of your data.
- Click the top light green rectangle to select it. Click and drag the central bottom selection handle to increase the rectangle's size.
Next, you'll draw a text box in the empty rectangle and type your description.
- On the ArcMap main menu, click Customize, point to Toolbars, and choose Draw.
The Draw toolbar opens. This toolbar has options to draw lines, shapes, and text boxes on your map or layout.
- On the Draw toolbar, click the arrow next to the Text tool and choose Rectangle Text.
- In the green box on the layout, draw a text box that uses most of the available area.
The box has the word Text as its default text.
- Double-click the text box to open its Properties dialog box and click the Text tab. Replace the default text with the following description (or write your own):
This map shows the extent of deforestation in Rondônia, Brazil, and the area that would be at risk of deforestation if a proposed road were built. About 46 percent of the area within 5.5 km of existing roads is deforested. Assuming a similar rate of deforestation, the proposed road would lead to about 623 sq. km of new deforestation.
This description uses the example results, which may differ from your results. Replace the percentage of area near roads and the area of new deforestation values with your own values.
- After the description, press Enter twice to create a line break. Add the following citation:
Data sources: Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, World Wildlife Fund, Imazon, HERE.
- Click Change Symbol. Change the font to Times New Roman and click OK.
- Change the paragraph style from Justify to Align Left.
You'll also remove the default black frame that appears around the text box.
- In the Properties dialog box, click the Frame tab. In the Border section, change the border style to None.
- Click OK.
If your text does not completely fit, your text box may be too small. Either resize the text box or change the font size until all text is visible.
Next, you'll change the map scale and add a scale bar. A map's scale is the relationship between a distance on the map and a distance on the ground. Scale is typically expressed as a fraction or ratio. For instance, in a map with a 1:400 scale, one unit of distance on the map is equal to 400 of the same units of distance in the real world. The scale of your map can be found on the Standard toolbar.
- On the Standard toolbar, click the box that contains the map scale to edit it. Type 4,000,000 and press Enter.
The map zooms to the new scale.
When you rescale the map, your data may become off-center or parts of it may fall outside of the data frame. You can reposition the map in the data frame with the Pan tool on the Tools toolbar.
- On the ArcMap main menu, click Insert and choose Scale Bar.
- In the Scale Bar Selector dialog box, scroll through the list and click Alternating Scale Bar 1 Metric.
Because your analysis was done in metric measurements, you'll use a metric scale bar.
- Click OK.
The scale bar is added to the layout.
- Drag the scale bar to the lower left corner of the map.
The scale bar overlaps with the basemap sources. Resizing the scale bar will change the values it displays.
- Click the central right selection handle and resize the scale bar until the largest value is 200.
The color of the scale bar doesn't show up well on top of the basemap.
- Double-click the scale bar to open the Alternating Scale Bar Properties dialog box. On the Format tab, change both the Text and Bar color to Arctic White.
The scale bar also has a black outline.
- In the Bar section, click Symbol. In the Symbol Selector, change Outline Color to Arctic White and click OK.
- Click Symbol 2. Change Outline Color to Arctic White, and click OK. In the Alternating Scale Bar Properties dialog box, click OK.
Create an inset map
Next, you'll create an inset map. An inset or locator map is a smaller map that shows the geographic location of the main map. Because most people don't know the location of Rondônia, Brazil, an inset map will give your map important geographic context. Your inset map will go in the empty data frame of your layout
To have multiple maps in one layout, each map needs its own data frame. Map documents have only one data frame by default, but you added a second data frame when you applied the layout template. The text in the lower right rectangle gives the name of the new data frame: Layers 2.
- At the bottom of the Table Of Contents, right-click Layers 2 and choose Activate.
Only one data frame can be active at a time.
In the Table Of Contents, the active data frame is in boldface. On the layout, the active data frame is surrounded by a dashed gray line. Now that you've activated the Layers 2 data frame, you can add data to it. The Layers 2 data frame will contain an inset map showing the location of Rondônia. You'll use a reference basemap from ArcGIS Online.
- On the Standard toolbar, click the arrow next to the Add Data tool and choose Add Data From ArcGIS Online.
- In the ArcGIS Online window, type World Physical Map in the search box and press Enter.
- Find the result titled World Physical Map and click Add.
The layer is added to the Table Of Contents under the Layers 2 data frame. In the layout, it appears in the empty data frame.
You want your inset map to locate Rondônia with respect to South America. You'll accomplish this by changing and customizing the map projection. Every data frame has a projection, which is a mathematical method for representing the round earth on a flat surface. Projections differ with respect to what parts of the world they show, which aspect or point of view they present, and the types of spatial distortion they impose on geography.
- In the Table Of Contents, double-click Layers 2 to open the Data Frame Properties dialog box. On the Coordinate System tab, type South Pole Orthographic in the search box and press Enter.
Inside the Polar folder is the single result: South Pole Orthographic.
- Click the South Pole Orthographic projection and click Apply to see how the projection looks in the layout.
When the projection is applied, the map becomes small, round, and focused on Antarctica. The South Pole Orthographic projection gives the world a circular appearance, distorting everything except the location on which the projection is centered. You'll change where the projection is centered.
- In the Data Frame Properties dialog box, right-click the South Pole Orthographic projection and choose Copy and Modify.
The Projected Coordinate System Properties dialog box opens. You'll use this dialog box to create a custom copy of the South Pole Orthographic projection centered on South America.
- In the Projected Coordinate System Properties dialog box, change the name to South_America_Orthographic. Change the Longitude Of Center parameter to -60 and the Latitude Of Center parameter to -15.
The coordinates specify a point just to the south of the state of Rondônia.
- Click OK. In the Data Frame Properties dialog box, click OK.
The projection is centered on South America, but you need to zoom in on the map.
- On the Standard toolbar, change the scale to 205,000,000.
The inset map zooms to the new scale.
- Use the Pan tool on the Tools toolbar to center the map in the data frame.
The inset map is focused on South America, but it doesn't show anything else.
- In the Table Of Contents, drag the Amazon Ecoregion layer from the Layers data frame to the Layers 2 data frame, placing it above the World Physical Map layer. Close the Geographic Coordinate Systems warning.
When you drag a layer from one data frame to another, the layer is copied instead of moved. The Amazon Ecoregion layer now appears in both maps.
Next, you'll add an extent indicator to the inset map. An extent indicator shows the extent of one data frame as an object on another data frame. In this case, you'll show the extent of your Rondônia map on your inset map.
- In the Table Of Contents, double-click the Layers 2 data frame. In the Data Frame Properties dialog box, click the Extent Indicators tab.
- Under Other data frames, click Layers. Click the arrow button that points to the right to add the Layers data frame to the list of data frames that have extent indicators.
- Click Apply. If necessary, click Yes to close the coordinate system warning and add the changes to the inset map.
The extent indicator shows Rondônia's location in South America. Its default appearance is too thick, however.
- In the Data Frame Properties dialog box, under Options - Layers, click the Frame button.
The Extent Indicator Frame Properties dialog box opens.
- In the Border section, click the Style properties button.
The Border dialog box opens.
- Change Color to Black and Width to 2. Click OK.
- In the Extent Indicator Frame Properties window, click OK. In the Data Frame Properties window, click OK. If necessary, click Yes to close the warning.
Next, you'll remove the blue background of the inset map.
- Open the Data Frame Properties dialog box and click the Frame tab. Change the Border and the Background to None.
- Click OK.
Your map is finished.
- Save the map document.
Export the map
Your map is ready to share. You have many options for sharing and distributing a print map: You can print physical copies of the map or you can export the map and distribute the file electronically.
- On the ArcMap main menu, click File and choose Print.
The Print dialog box opens. This dialog box allows you to choose the printer from which to print the document, the output image quality, and the number of copies to print. Make sure you are using a printer using 8.5 by 11 inch paper (or the metric equivalent).
- If you choose to print your map, click OK. If you do not want to print your map, click Cancel.
- Click File again and choose Export Map.
The Export Map dialog box opens. This dialog box allows you to choose an export file type, such as PDF or PNG, and specify an output location. At the bottom of the window, under Options, you can adjust image quality and other settings.
- If you choose to export your map, choose an output location and file type, give the file a new name, and click Save. If you do not want to export your map, click Cancel.
This concludes the project Get Started with ArcMap. In this project, you created a map and added data to it, symbolized and modified the data, performed analysis to answer a geographic question, and shared your results in the form of a printable map. This project has been only a taste of the functionality and capabilities of ArcMap. If you're interested in learning more about ArcMap, try the projects Homeless in the Badlands and Mapping the Public Garden.