Locate deep-sea coral data

In this module, you are an educator who wants to increase awareness of deep-sea corals in the Hawaiian Islands. First, you'll obtain data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges. Then, you'll explore, analyze, and enrich the data in ArcGIS Pro.

Note:

Before you begin the lesson, you can review the article An Introduction to NOAA's National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges.

Download coral observations

Using the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal, you'll use a data query to narrow coral observations to the North Pacific Ocean, where the Hawaiian Islands are located.

  1. On your computer, create a folder named HawaiiDeepSeaCorals.
  2. Go to the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal.

    NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal website

    Through this portal, the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Research and Technology Program shares its deep-sea coral database.

    Note:

    NOAA and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) make no warranty, expressed or implied, regarding this data, nor does the fact of distribution constitute such a warranty. NOAA and NMFS cannot assume liability for any damages caused by any errors or omissions in this data nor as a result of the failure of this data to function on a particular system.

  3. On the ribbon above the map viewer, click Data Query.

    Data Query button

  4. In the Data Query window, change Region to North Pacific and click Search.

    Search in the Data Query

    Note:

    You may receive an error message while running this query. Click OK to proceed.

    Because there are more than 600,000 results in the database, depending on your bandwidth, the dataset may not load. If you have problems displaying data for the North Pacific Ocean, edit the data query to the following: In the Data Query window, check Fish Council Region and change Region to Western Pacific.

    This query will give you less data to visualize, but includes all the data points around the Hawaiian Islands that the lesson refers to. Continue the lesson, substituting Western Pacific for North Pacific if necessary.

    The query window closes. The map changes to show the deep-sea coral observations in the North Pacific Ocean. Observation numbers may vary as new locations are added periodically.

    North Pacific Ocean corals

  5. On the ribbon, click Data Download.

    Data Download button

  6. In the Data Download window, click Customized Download.

    Customized Download button

    The Data Access Form page appears in a new browser tab or window. It contains options to search and download data from the portal. You can search by taxon, region, time, and depth.

  7. On the Data Access Form page, check the following variables (and uncheck any other variables):
    • CatalogNumber
    • ImageURL
    • Repository
    • ScientificName
    • VernacularNameCategory
    • latitude (degrees_north)
    • longitude (degrees_east)
    • DepthInMeters (m)
    • ObservationDate
    • SamplingEquipment
    • RecordType
    • DataProvider
    • WebSite

    These variables represent the attribute fields that'll be added to the dataset that you download.

    Selected data variables to export

  8. Above the list of variables, click Metadata. Review the descriptions of the variables you selected.

    Metadata Summary

  9. When finished, click your browser's Back button to return to the Data Access Form page.

    Next, you'll confirm that the data is constrained to the Western Pacific Ocean.

  10. For the Ocean variable, confirm that Optional Constraint #1 is set to = "North Pacific". (The Ocean variable should be unchecked.)

    Ocean variable constrained to North Pacific.

    Note:
    If you used the optional query, make sure the FishCouncilRegion variable is set to = "Western Pacific".

  11. At the bottom of the list of variables, for File type, choose .csv.

    File type parameter set to .csv.

  12. Click Submit to download the file.
    Note:

    In addition to downloading the selected data as a file, the Data Access Form page has a Just generate the URL option. If you choose this option, a URL is generated that identifies a dataset, the desired file type, and selected variables to download.

    For international users: A comma-separated values (CSV) file is a delimited text file that uses a comma to separate values. If the CSV table does not open correctly, go to the control panel of your OS, click Region, and change Format to English (United States). Your OS decimal separator is changed to points and the .csv file should open successfully. You can change your region back to your native settings after you complete this lesson.

  13. Locate your downloaded .csv file and move it to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder. Open the file in Microsoft Excel or an equivalent program.

    The spreadsheet's second row represents a column title. You'll not use this row, so you can delete it.

  14. Select and delete the second row.

    Second row in the spreadsheet

  15. Save the file as Deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.csv in your HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder.

Download marine protected area data

NOAA's Marine Protected Areas (MPA) Inventory describes all MPAs in United States waters and highlights where they are and what they do. Next, you'll download the MPA database and will use it to better understand which deep-sea corals are located within Hawaiian MPAs.

  1. Go to the NOAA MPA Inventory website.
  2. Scroll down to the MPA Inventory heading and click Downloadable GIS data.

    Downloadable GIS data link

    The MPA data is automatically downloaded to your computer.

    Note:

    If you are unable to access the NOAA site, you can download the data from ArcGIS Online.

  3. Extract the downloaded .zip file to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder.

    The downloaded data is a .gdb or geodatabase file.

Add the data to a project

Next, you'll add the downloaded data to an ArcGIS Pro project and prepare it for analysis and exploration.

  1. Start ArcGIS Pro. If prompted, sign in using your licensed ArcGIS Online account or ArcGIS Enterprise account.
    Note:

    If you don't have ArcGIS Pro or an ArcGIS account, you can sign up for an ArcGIS free trial.

  2. Under New Project, click the Map template.
  3. In the Create a New Project window, for Name, type Exploring Hawaii Deep Sea Corals. For Location, browse to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder. Uncheck Create a new folder for this project.

    Create a New Project window parameters

  4. Click OK.

    You'll add the geodatabase to the project, and then add the marine protected area feature class to the map.

  5. In the Catalog pane, expand Folders, then HawaiiDeepSeaCorals. Expand the NOAA_MPAI_v2020_IUCN geodatabase you downloaded in the previous steps and drag the feature class onto the map.
    Note:

    Depending on how recent the data is, your map may look slightly different.

    The polygon data appears on the map. The map now draws in a modified Eckert IV projection to match the coordinate system of the shapefile.

    Note:

    World Eckert IV is an equal-area projection designed for world maps.

    Polygon data on the map with the World Eckert IV projection

    Next, you'll rename the layer.

  6. In the Contents pane, click the NOAA_MPAI_v2020_IUCN layer two times, type MPA, and press Enter.

    The layer is now renamed MPA, which stands for marine protected area.

  7. Uncheck the MPA layer to turn it off.

    MPA layer unchecked.

  8. In the Catalog pane, right-click Deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.csv and choose Add to Current Map.
  9. In the Contents pane, right-click Deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.csv and choose Display XY Data.
  10. On the Display XY Data window, set the following parameters:

    • If necessary, for Input Table, choose Deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.csv.
    • For Output Feature Class, type deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.
    • If necessary, for X Field, choose longitude.
    • If necessary, for Y Field, choose latitude.

    Display XY Data tool parameters

  11. Click OK.

    The XY Table to Point tool may take several minutes to execute because the file contains over 600,000 observations.

    When completed, a new layer named deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific appears in the map. The layer consists of selected coral observations that occur in the North Pacific.

    XY point data converted to feature class.

  12. In the Contents pane, right-click deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific and choose Attribute Table.
  13. In the attribute table, confirm that the table contains more than 600,000 records.

    Number of records in the attribute table

    Note:

    The deep-sea corals database updates periodically. You may encounter slightly different data than shown in the example images.

  14. Close the attribute table.
  15. On the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button to save the project.

    Save button on the Quick Access Toolbar

    Tip:

    You can also press Ctrl+S to save the project.

    Now that you have the spatial data that you need in your map, you are ready to begin exploring the data to discover patterns and trends. In the next section, you'll use some tools to help summarize the coral data in Hawaii, explore observation attributes by using charts and graphs, and enrich the data with content from ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World.

Locate coral observations near Hawaii

Next, you'll select coral observations within the United States Exclusive Economic Zone around Hawaii. You'll do this by using the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) boundary available in ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World. State waters typically include a zone of 0 to 3 nautical miles from shore, while federal waters as identified in the EEZ around Hawaii are up to 200 nautical miles. Because deep-sea corals are found in waters deeper than state waters, you'll select coral observations within the EEZ.

  1. In the Catalog pane, click Portal. Click the Living Atlas button.

    Living Atlas search option

  2. In the search box, type world exclusive economic and press Enter.

    This layer is a feature layer, which allows users to make a local copy of features for editing, enrichment, and refining.

  3. Right-click World Exclusive Economic Zone Boundaries and choose Add To Current Map.
    Add layer to current map display
  4. In the Contents pane, expand the World Exclusive Economic Zone Boundaries layer.

    World Exclusive Economic Zone Boundaries layer expanded.

  5. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Selection group, click the Select By Rectangle button.

    Select button

  6. On the map, zoom to and select the polygon surrounding the Hawaiian Islands.

    Hawaii EEZ selected.

  7. In the Contents pane, right-click the Sovereign Country layer and choose Attribute Table.
  8. At the bottom of the attribute table, click Show Selected Records. Confirm that you have selected only Hawaiian Exclusive Economic Zone.

    Show selected records button

    Note:

    If necessary, click the More Options button in the upper right corner of the attribute table and choose Show All Fields.

  9. Close the attribute table, but do not clear the selection.

    Next, you'll select the corals that intersect with EEZ boundaries using the Select By Location tool. Because you have already selected the Hawaiian EEZ, the tool will return only corals within the Hawaiian EEZ.

  10. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Selection group, click Select By Location.

    The Select By Location window appears.

  11. In the Select By Location window, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Features, choose deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.
    • For Relationship, choose Intersect.
    • For Selecting Features, choose World Exclusive Economic Zone Boundaries\Sovereign Country.
    • For Selection type, choose New selection.

    Select Layer By Location tool parameters

  12. Click OK.

    The coral features in the deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific layer that intersect with the EEZ boundary for Hawaii are selected.

    Selected coral features in the EEZ boundary for Hawaii.

    Next, you'll export the selected corals to their own feature class.

  13. In the Contents pane, right-click deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific, point to Data, and choose Export Features.

    Export selected features.

  14. In the Export Features window that appears, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Features, choose deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific.
    • For Output Feature Class, type deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.

    Feature Class to Feature Class tool parameters

  15. Click OK.

    A new layer is added to the Contents pane named deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.

  16. In the Contents pane, uncheck the deep_sea_corals_North_Pacific layer. Uncheck and collapse the World Exclusive Economic Zone Boundaries layer.
  17. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Layer group, click Basemap and choose Oceans.

    Oceans basemap

    The basemap updates to show the ocean floor.

    Update basemap to oceans.

  18. Save the project.

In this module of the lesson, you explored and downloaded data from the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal. You used the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal to locate and download coral data for the North Pacific Ocean. Then, you used EEZ boundaries to select only observations made in the Hawaiian Islands.

In the next module of the lesson, you'll use the Hawaiian coral observations and the MPAs to answer several questions about the coral types, how the observations were made, the depth at which coral is found, and how far coral is located away from the shore.


Explore deep-sea corals

In the previous module of this lesson, you located, downloaded, and prepared data for analysis and exploration. In this module, you'll answer questions related to deep-sea coral observations recorded in Hawaii using ArcGIS Pro tools and workflows.

You may choose to explore each question in the section sequentially or skip to a specific question that interests you.

What are the dominant deep-sea coral types?

You'll start your exploration of Hawaiian deep-sea corals by determining the dominant coral types and the average depth at which they are found. You'll answer this question by summarizing attributes for observations.

Euplectella aspergillum glass sponge

Euplectella aspergillum glass sponge is shown in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. If necessary, open the Exploring Hawaii Deep Sea Corals project.
  2. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer and choose Attribute Table.
  3. In the attribute table, right-click the VernacularNameCategory field and choose Summarize.

    Summarize

    The Summarize Statistics tool window appears.

    The VernacularNameCategory field contains the common (vernacular) name category of the organism. These are categorized as stony coral (cup coral), stony coral (branching), stony coral (unspecified), black coral, gold coral, gorgonian coral, soft coral, sea pen, lace coral, stoloniferan coral, lithotelestid coral, longhorn hydrozoan coral, other coral-like hydrozoan, sponge (unspecified), glass sponge, demosponge, calcareous sponge, scleromorph sponge, and N.

  4. In the Summary Statistics tool, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Table, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Output Table, type DominantCorals.
    • For Statistics Field(s), for Field, choose DepthInMeters.
    • For Statistics Field(s), for Statistic Type, choose Mean.
    • For Case field, choose VernacularNameCategory.

    Summary Statistics tool parameters

  5. Click OK.

    The tool generates the DominantCorals table and adds it to the Contents pane.

  6. In the Contents pane, right-click DominantCorals and choose Open.

    In the table, the FREQUENCY field shows the numbers of observations of each coral type. In addition, the MEAN_DepthInMeters field shows the average depth at which a specific coral type was observed.

    DominantCorals summary statistics table

  7. In the table, right-click the FREQUENCY field and choose Sort Descending.

    Sort Descending

    Gorgonian coral is the dominant type observed (44,813). These corals were observed at an average depth of 1,437.8 meters below the surface.

    Note:

    Your values may differ from the example, as the data is updated in real time.

    Highest number of corals observed

  8. For an additional challenge, determine which coral types were observed at depths greater than 1,000 meters.
    Tip:

    Sort the Mean_DepthInMeters field by descending order.

  9. Close the attribute table.

Return to the list of questions

When were coral observations made?

Due to environmental conditions, the number of observations of a coral type may change over time. Some coral types may increase or decrease because of temperature or salinity fluctuations. To explore when these coral observations were made, you'll use a line chart.

Yellow Picasso sponge and white sponges

Yellow Picasso sponge and white sponges are shown on Davidson Seamount. Image courtesy of NOAA/MBARI.

  1. In your computer file browser, browse to your HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder and create a folder named Graphs.
  2. In ArcGIS Pro, in the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart, and choose Line Chart.
    Create a line chart
  3. In the Chart Properties pane, set the following parameters:

    • Under Variables, for Date or Number, choose ObservationDate.
    • For Aggregation, confirm Count is selected.
    • Under Time binning options, for Interval size, choose 10 Years.
    • Under Data Labels, check Label lines.

    Chart properties

    The line chart is updated in the chart view.

    Observation date line chart

    Note:

    Recall that the NOAA data is updated regularly, so you may have slightly different values.

    The earliest coral observations were made around 1902. Then, none were recorded for close to 60 years. In the mid-1960s, corals were once again explored and close to 4,000 observations were made up to the mid-1980s. With advances in technology and the widespread use of submarines and video, the pace of observations increased exponentially after 1983. The most current observations take place around 2003.

  4. In the Contents pane, click the symbol for the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer.

    Symbol for deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer

  5. In the Symbology pane, click Gallery and select Circle 3.
    Change symbol for the selected layer
  6. Click the Properties tab. Under Appearance, for Size, type 4 and press Enter. For Color, choose Ginger Pink.
    Note:

    To see a color's name, hover over the color.

    Symbology settings

  7. Click Apply and close the Symbology pane.
  8. On the chart, click the point that represents the highest number of observations (your value may vary).

    Highest number of observations point

    The corresponding points are also selected on the map.

    Select newest observations on chart.

    The observations made around 2003 were made over 3,000 kilometers and included many islands and seamounts in the Pacific Ocean. Modern technology made these observations possible and the use of scuba equipment and submersible vehicles contributed to the pace and number of observations recorded.

  9. On the chart, click the point representing observations made in or around 1903.

    These observations are largely concentrated around the main Hawaiian Islands and cover a around 700 kilometers. Most of these observations were recorded by the Smithsonian Institution's National Museum of Natural History. The specimens were likely collected by dredge or trawl as part of the explorations of the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Some records may also have been caught by fishermen.

    Select oldest observations.

  10. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Selection group, click Clear to clear selected points on the chart.

    Next, you'll modify the chart title and add a legend title and description.

  11. In the Chart Properties pane, click the General tab. Change the following parameters:

    • For Chart title, type Coral Observations Over Time.
    • For X axis title, type Observation Date.
    • For Y axis title, type Number of Observations.
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..

    Updated general line chart properties

    The chart updates.

    Note:

    Charts are maintained within your ArcGIS Pro project as a property of the layer from which they are derived and may be added to layouts as needed. If you choose to add a chart to a story or use them in other presentations, it is necessary to export and save them independently as graphics.

  12. In the Chart pane, click Export and choose Export As Graphic.

    Export As Graphic

  13. In the Export window, browse to the Graphs folder. For Name, type Coral Observations Over Time.jpg.

    You need to add .jpg to the output name to ensure your graph is saved in the correct image format.

  14. Next to the Name field, click the drop-down menu for the output format, which currently shows Scalable Vector Graphic (*.svg), and choose JPEG Image (*.jpg).

    Choose JPEG as the output graphic format.

  15. Click Save.

    The chart is exported to a JPEG image and you can add it to layouts and reports in ArcGIS Pro or add it to other documents, such as a presentation.

  16. Close the Chart Properties pane and Chart pane.
    Note:

    Closing a chart does not remove the chart from the project. The chart remains in the Contents pane unless you delete it.

Return to the list of questions

How were observations collected?

Next, you'll gain a better understanding of how the original and current deep-sea coral observations were recorded. You'll do this by charting the recording methods contained in the RecordType field for each observation.

Black coral (Bathypathes)

Black coral (Bathypathes) is shown on a rocky ridge crest of Johnston Atoll. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart, and choose Bar Chart.
  2. In the Chart Properties pane, set the following parameters:

    • For Category or Date, choose RecordType.
    • For Aggregation, choose Count.
    • For Data Labels, check Label bars.

    The bar chart updates to display a count per observation record type.

    Bar chart of record types

    As you learned, the bar chart shows that the majority of observations were collected using video observation and identified by experts from the video footage. Most of the deep-sea coral records taken from video surveys in the United States Pacific Islands region before and during the mid-2000s were collected fairly close to shore.

    The 2015–2017 NOAA Campaign to Address Pacific Monument Science, Technology, and Ocean Needs (CAPSTONE) expedition dramatically expanded both the geographic and depth limits that had been explored in the region previously.

    ROV collecting corals.

    ROV Deep Discoverer (D2) collects an unknown Corallium species at 2,078 meters depth. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2015 Hohonu Moana.

  3. In the Chart Properties pane, for Sort choose Y-axis Descending.

    Sort bar chart by Y-axis Descending.

    The RecordType values are sorted in order from highest to lowest from left to right.

  4. In the Contents pane, click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer. On the ribbon, click the Feature Layer tab and in the Drawing group, click Symbology.

    Symbology on the ribbon

  5. In the Symbology pane, enter the following:
    • For Primary symbology, choose Unique Values.
    • For Field 1, choose RecordType.
    • For Color scheme, click the down arrow, check the box for Show names and Show all, and choose Set 1 (6 Classes).

    Symbology pane parameters

    The color values associated with the observations are reflected in the chart. Your colors may vary based on the symbols you chose.

    Symbolized bar chart

    Note:

    The RecordType field denotes the origin and type of record. The options are published literature (literature); a collected specimen (specimen); observation from a still image (still image); observation from video (video observation); notation without a specimen or image (notation); or observation from trawl surveys, longline surveys, or observer records (catch record).

    Video observation

    ROV Deep Discoverer images a stalked sponge. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2015 Hohonu Moana.

  6. Open the Chart Properties pane and click the General tab.
  7. On the General tab, enter the following parameters:
    • For Chart title, type Coral Observations by Record Type.
    • For X axis title, type Record Type.
    • For Y axis title, type Number of Coral Observations.
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..

    The properties update on the chart.

    The vast majority of observations were made using video-based methods. Submersible vehicles could easily be used to remotely record video footage at great depths without harm to divers and researchers. More than 1,900 observations were made by collecting physical specimens of corals. It is doubtful that many deep-sea coral specimens could efficiently have been collected in this manner due to the limitations placed on the collection methods used for these specimens.

  8. In the Chart pane, click the specimen bar.

    The specimen observations are selected on the map.

    Selected specimen records

    These observations are distributed along the entire Hawaiian Islands chain, with the majority of observations concentrated around the five major islands in the south. This may have been as a result of specimen acquisition from local fishermen and divers.

    Note:

    Your number of observations may differ.

  9. In the Chart pane, click Clear Selection.
  10. Click Export and choose Export As Graphic.
  11. In the Export window, for Name, type Coral Observations by Record Type.jpg.
  12. Save the chart in the Graphs folder.
  13. Close the Chart Properties pane and the bar chart.
  14. Save the project.

Return to the list of questions

What equipment was used to collect the coral data?

Now that you know what the record types are, you'll learn more about the sampling equipment used to collect the coral observations. You'll create another bar graph to help visualize this data.

Gorgonian coral

A Hawaiian species of gorgonian called Rhodaniridogorgia bending in the current. Image courtesy of NOAA-HURL Archives.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart and choose Bar Chart.
  2. In the Chart Properties pane, set the following parameters:

    • For Category or Date, choose SamplingEquipment.
    • For Aggregation, choose Count.
    • For Data Labels, check Label bars.

  3. In the Chart pane, sort the chart by Y-axis Descending.

    Sampling equipment bar chart

    The graph shows that the majority of the records were collected by submersible and remotely operated vehicle (ROV) observations.

    Note:

    The SamplingEquipment field refers to the method of data collection and includes ROV, submersible, NA, net, trawl, dredge, scuba, pot, grab, and other.

  4. In the Chart Properties pane, click General. Change the following parameters:

    • For Chart title, type Coral Observations by Sampling Equipment.
    • For X axis title, type Sampling Equipment.
    • For Y axis title, type Number of Coral Observations.
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..

    Most of the deep-sea coral observations were made using a submersible vehicle (possibly occupied) and ROV (unoccupied). The data collection methods are modern and make it easy and quick to cover large areas and collect large amounts of data that can be processed at a later date. It would be safe to assume that older sample methods involved trawling, nets, and dredging. Scuba observations are limited by the depth that divers can descend to collect specimens.

  5. In the Chart view, click Export and choose Export As Graphic. Save your bar chart as Observations by Sampling Equipment.jpg in the Graphs folder.
  6. Close the Chart Properties pane and the Chart pane.
  7. Save the project.

Return to the list of questions

What types of corals are found around Hawaii?

There are many types of deep-sea corals. You'll use some of the charting tools to categorize the coral types and their associated quantities. You'll use the Vernacular Name Category field to accomplish this within a bar chart.

Iridogorgia soft coral

Iridogorgia soft coral located off the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. Download the Deep Sea Corals layer file.

    NOAA provides a layer file that mimics the way that the data is displayed on the Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal. You'll use the file to apply the symbology to your corals layer for Hawaii and create a chart showing the different vernacular name classifications and associated counts.

  2. Copy the deep-sea-coral.lyr file to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder.
  3. In the Contents pane, click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer.
  4. On the ribbon, on the Feature Layer tab, in the Drawing group, click Import.

    Import

    The Import Symbology window appears.

  5. In the Import Symbology window, enter the following parameters:
    • For Input Layer, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Symbology Layer, browse to and double-click deep_sea_coral.lyr.

    Apply Symbology From Layer tool

  6. Click OK.

    The layer symbology updates and the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer observations display using the vernacular or common name of the observed deep-sea coral type.

    Coral symbology updates to show types of coral.

  7. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart, and choose Bar Chart.
  8. In the Chart Properties pane, configure the following settings:
    • For Category or Date , choose VernacularNameCategory.
    • For Aggregation, choose Count.
    • For Data Labels, check Label bars.

    The bar chart updates to display coral types by name.

    Coral counts by vernacular name bar chart

    The top three vernacular name categories that have been observed are gorgonian coral, black coral, and glass sponge, but in the current chart configuration it is hard to easily identify the top three coral types.

  9. In the Chart Properties pane, on the Data tab, sort the chart by Y-axis Descending.
  10. In the Chart Properties pane, click the General tab, and change the following parameters:
    • For Chart title, type Coral Observations by Vernacular Name Category.
    • For X axis title, type Vernacular Name Category.
    • For Y axis title, type Number of Coral Observations.
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..

    Lace corals are least observed and may have a very specific depth, light, and nutrient requirement to thrive. Next, you'll explore coral depths to gain insight into this factor affecting location and distribution.

  11. In the Chart pane, click Export and choose Export As Graphic. Save your line chart as Coral Observations by Vernacular Name Category.jpg in the Graphs folder.
  12. Close the Chart Properties pane and the Chart pane.
  13. Save the project.

Return to the list of questions

How deep are the corals?

A histogram of the observed coral locations will help you better understand the depths and associated ranges where coral observations were made.

Dense and diverse deep-sea coral community

ROV Deep Discoverer observes 4 species of coral and 12 colonies at a depth of 1,967 meters at 16.14331 N, 167.85602 W. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2015 Hohonu Moana.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart, and choose Histogram.
  2. In the Chart Properties pane, configure the following parameters:
    • For Number, choose DepthInMeters.
    • Check Show Normal distribution.
    • For Bins, if necessary, set it to 32.
    • Check the boxes for Mean, Median, and Std. Dev..

    Histogram properties

    The histogram updates to display coral count distribution by depth.

    Coral count distribution by depth

    This graph shows that the highest number of observed deep-sea corals are found between 312 and 462 meters of depth. The mean or average depth where corals were observed is 1,276 meters and the median is 1,433 meters. However, this does not show you at which depths specific species are located.

  3. In the Chart Properties pane, click the General tab, and change the following parameters:

    • For Chart title, type Coral Observations by Depth.
    • For X axis title, type Depth (m).
    • For Y axis title, type Number of Coral Observations.
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..

  4. In the Chart pane, click Export and choose Export As Graphic. Save your line chart as Coral Observations by Depth.jpg in the Graphs folder.
  5. Close the Chart Properties pane and the Chart pane.
  6. Save the project.

Return to the list of questions

What depths do different types of corals prefer?

While it is helpful to understand the coral observations by depth values, it is also interesting to know at what depths certain corals were observed, helping you to identify what depths specific species of coral may prefer. You can find this out by generating a box plot.

Zoanthids overgrowing coral

Zoanthids overgrowing coral off the Northwest Hawaiian Islands. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer, point to Create Chart, and choose Box Plot.
  2. In the Chart Properties pane, for Numeric field(s), click Select and check DepthInMeters and click Apply.

    Numeric fields selected.

  3. For Category, choose VernacularNameCategory.

    The box plot updates to display deep-sea coral depths by each vernacular name category.

    Box plot of depth by coral type

    The box plot shows the ranges of observed deep-sea coral depths by each vernacular name category.

  4. In the Chart pane, point to the gold coral box plot.

    Gold coral box plot

    Gold coral has the narrowest depth range, found between 165 and 661 meters, but most are found between 371 and 427 meters (first and third quartile) with an average depth of 397 meters.

    Note:

    Your values may differ as more records are added to the corals database.

    Gold coral

    Gold coral (left) in the process of overgrowing a bamboo coral colony (right) that it'll eventually completely cover. Image courtesy of NOAA-HURL Archives.

  5. Point to the glass sponge box plot.

    Glass sponge box plot

    Glass sponges, on the other hand, show the widest depth range and are found between 87 and 4,824 meters, but most are found between 1,460 and 2,106 meters (first and third quartile) with an average depth of 1,866 meters.

  6. In the Chart Properties pane, click the General tab and change the following parameters:
    • For Chart title, type Depth Distribution by Vernacular Name Category.
    • For X axis title, type Vernacular Name.
    • For Y axis title, type Depth (m).
    • For Description, type Coral Observations within the U.S. EEZ around Hawaii. Coral data obtained from NOAA Deep-Sea Coral Database..
  7. In the Chart pane, click Export and click Export As Graphic. Save your line chart as Depth Distribution by Vernacular Name Category.jpg in the Graphs folder.
  8. Close the Chart Properties pane and the Chart pane.
  9. Save the project.

Return to the list of questions

How far from the shore are corals?

The NOAA deep-sea coral data came with many attributes that have helped you answer questions about the Hawaiian deep-sea corals. However, to answer more complex questions, you may need to enrich the data with additional attributes. Next, you'll enrich the deep-sea coral data with information related to how far observations are from the shore by using an online layer from ArcGIS Living Atlas of the World.

Stylasterid coral Crypthelia kelleyi

Newly described species of stylasterid coral, Crypthelia kelleyi, discovered in 2015 on a CAPSTONE expedition to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research.

  1. Open the Catalog pane, click Portal, and click the Living Atlas button.
    Tip:

    To open the Catalog pane, on the ribbon, click the View tab, and in the Windows group, click Catalog Pane.

  2. Search for distance from shore and press Enter.
  3. In the search results, right-click the Distance from Shore (km) imagery layer and choose Add To Current Map.

    The Distance from Shore (km) layer is a continuous raster in which each pixel represents a distance away from shore.

    Distance from Shore layer added to map.

    Currently, the layer displays transformed pixel values displayed in a red, green, blue (RGB) image, based on a predefined color scheme.

  4. In the Contents pane, right-click the Distance from Shore (km) layer and choose Properties.
  5. In the Layer Properties window, click Processing Templates, and for Processing Template, choose None.

    For analysis, you need to have access to the underlying pixel values (real distances) to enrich each observation point with its distance from shore. By choosing None from the processing template, you're switching pixel values from display values in RGB to real distance values in kilometers for analysis.

    Update processing template.

  6. Click OK.

    Distance from Shore actual pixel values

    The Distance from Shore (km) layer updates and now displays the underlying pixel values representing distance that are useful for analysis. Next, you'll use the distance values to enrich coral observations.

  7. On the ribbon, click the Analysis tab. In the Geoprocessing group, click Tools.

    The Geoprocessing pane appears.

  8. In the Geoprocessing pane, search for and open the Extract Multi Values to Points tool.

    Extract Multi Values to Points tool

    Note:

    The Extract Multi Values to Points tool requires the ArcGIS Spatial Analyst extension.

  9. In the Extract Multi Values to Points tool, click the Environments tab.
  10. Under Processing Extent, for Extent, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.

    Extract Multi Values to Points tool environment settings

  11. Click the Parameters tab.
  12. Change the following parameters:
    • For Input point features, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Input rasters, choose Distance from Shore (km).
    • For Output field name, verify that it is Distance_from_Shore__km.

    Extract Multi Values to Points tool parameter settings

  13. Click Run.

    This process adds an attribute field to the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer that you can use to determine how far away from the shore an observation was made. Next, you'll generate statistics that summarize the minimum, maximum, and mean distance of each coral type from the shore.

  14. In the Geoprocessing pane, click the back arrow. Search for and open the Summary Statistics geoprocessing tool.
  15. In the Summary Statistics tool, set the following parameters:
    • For Input Table, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Output Table, type Hawaii_Corals_Dist_From_Shore.
    • For Field, choose Distance_from_Shore__km, and for Statistic Type, choose Minimum.
    • For Field, choose Distance_from_Shore__km, and for Statistic Type, choose Maximum.
    • For Field, choose Distance_from_Shore__km, and for Statistic Type, choose Mean.
    • For Case field, choose VernacularNameCategory.

    Generate summary statistics.

  16. Click Run.

    A new stand-alone table is added to the Contents pane.

    Note:

    The Summary Statistic tool may complete with warnings. It will not affect the outcome of the analysis.

  17. In the Contents pane, under Standalone Tables, right-click the Hawaii_Corals_Dist_From_Shore table and choose Open.

    By comparing the information in the statistics table, you can better understand the selective ranges of each coral and compare them to see which species you may find in groups.

  18. Close the table and save the project.

Return to the list of questions

In this module of the lesson, you used several ArcGIS Pro charting tools and data enrichment workflows to answer questions related to deep-sea corals located in Hawaii. By posing and answering these questions, you've gained a better understanding of deep-sea corals and what factors affect their distribution and their survival in the future. In the next module of the lesson, you'll generate a short report summarizing some of your results.


Design a coral report

In the previous module of the lesson, you explored the coral data. In this module of the lesson, you'll summarize the number of each deep-sea coral type observed within and outside of marine protected areas.

Determine which corals are in protected areas

Previously, you downloaded and added the marine protected area (MPA) layer to your map. Next, you'll use the MPA data to determine which corals are located in protected areas and which are not.

Mushroom coral

A close-up of a mushroom coral at almost 2,000 meters is shown. Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2015 Hohonu Moana.

  1. If necessary, open your project.
  2. On the ribbon, on the Analysis tab, in the Geoprocessing group, click Tools. In the Geoprocessing pane, search for and open the Add Field tool.
  3. In the Add Field tool, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Table, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Field Name, type MPA.
    • For Field Type, choose Text.
    • For Field Length, type 5.
    • For Field Alias, type Inside MPA.
    • Ensure Field supports null values is checked.

    Add Field tool parameters

  4. Click Run.

    The field is added to the table.

  5. In the Contents pane, turn off all layers except deep_sea_corals_Hawaii, MPA, and the basemap.
  6. In the Contents pane, click the symbol for MPA to open the Symbology pane.
  7. In the Symbology pane, if necessary, click the Gallery tab. Search for and click Extent Transparent Yellow.
    Tip:

    You can see the full name of the symbol by pointing to a symbol.

    Extent Transparent Yellow symbol

    The MPA layer symbology updates.

  8. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Selection group, click Select By Location.
  9. In the Select By Location window, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Features, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Relationship, confirm Intersect is selected.
    • For Selecting Features, choose MPA.
    • For Selection type, confirm New selection is selected.

    Select By Location tool parameters

  10. Click OK.
    Note:

    The selection may take a few minutes as there are many features being analyzed and selected.

  11. If necessary, open the attribute table for the deep_sea_corals_Hawaii layer.
  12. In the attribute table, right-click the Inside MPA field and choose Calculate Field.

    Calculate Inside MPA field.

    The Calculate Field window appears.

  13. For the Calculate Field window, set the following parameters:

    • For Input Table, choose deep_sea_corals_Hawaii.
    • For Field Name (Existing or New), choose Inside MPA.
    • In the expression box, under MPA =, type "Yes".

    Calculate Field tool parameters

  14. Click OK.
  15. In the attribute table, confirm that Yes was added to the Inside MPA field for the selected records.

    Updated Inside MPA field with Yes value

  16. On the table ribbon, click the Switch button.

    Switch selection

    The selection switches from the corals that intersect the MPAs to the ones that do not intersect. Next, you'll run the Calculate Field tool again to populate the Inside MPA field with No for those corals that do not intersect the MPAs.

  17. Right-click the Inside MPA field and choose the Calculate Field window that appears. For the expression box under MPA =, type "No".
  18. Click OK. Confirm that No was successfully added to the Inside MPA field for the selected records.
  19. On the attribute table, click Clear and close the table.
  20. Save the project.

Create a report

Next, you will create a report to convey some of your findings. Reports allow you to configure data, apply field grouping and sorting, add summary statistics, and choose a template and styling theme.

  1. On the Insert tab, in the Project group, click New Report.

    New Report button

    The Create New Report pane appears.

  2. In the Create New Report pane, change Report name to Hawaii Deep Sea Coral in Marine Protected Areas.
  3. For Data source, confirm deep_sea_corals_Hawaii is selected.

    Data source option

  4. Click Next.

    The Filter the data page appears.

  5. For Rows, choose Filter by expression.

    Rows set to Filter by expression.

  6. Click New expression.

    The query builder appears.

  7. Build the expression Where Inside MPA is equal to Yes and click the Verify the SQL expression is valid button.

    Build expression.

    The expression is valid, confirming that it'll run correctly.

  8. For Fields, uncheck Select all.
  9. In the list of fields, check the following fields:
    • VernacularNameCategory{VernacularNameCategory}
    • DepthInMeters{DepthInMeters}
    • Distance_from_Shore_km{Distance_from_Shore_km}

    Select fields for report.

    These fields will be added to the final report.

  10. Click Next.
  11. On the Organize the data page, under Grouping and Sorting, in the Grouping column, choose VernacularNameCategory.

    Group by VernacularNameCategory field.

    Note:

    To learn more about organizing data in a report, go to the Organize report data documentation page.

  12. Under Summary statistics, select the following field and statistic combinations:

    • For Field, choose DepthInMeters. For Statistic, choose Mean.
    • For Field, choose Distance_from_Shore_km. For Statistic, choose Mean.

    Select summary statistics fields.

  13. Click Next.
  14. On the Design the report page, enter the following:
    • Under Display, for Template, choose Basic Summary with Grouping.
    • For Styling, choose Cool Tones.
    • Under Page setup, for Margins, choose Narrow.
  15. Click Finish.

    The report is added to the project in design layout.

    Project report layout page

    The final report will appear differently. For example, in the final report, all text in braces will be replaced by actual attribute values. You can add supporting elements, such as map images and charts to your report.

Add elements to your report

You've created a basic report to show various information in your data. While this information is the main component of the report, it's good to add other elements to the report , such as a map or chart, to enhance the aesthetics and tell a more complete story. You'll export a map as an image and add it to the report. You'll then add a chart that you already created to the report. Once you've added supporting elements to the report, you'll export it.

  1. Above the report view, click Map to return to the map.

    Click the Map tab.

  2. Using the Explore tool, adjust the extent of your map to show the islands of Hawaii (it does not have to match the example exactly).

    Zoom to Hawaii.

    You'll export the view of this map as an image and add the image to your report.

  3. On the ribbon, click the Share tab. In the Output section, click Export Map.

    Export Map button

    The Export pane appears.

  4. In the Export pane, for File Type, choose JPEG. For Name, click Browse and browse to where you want to store the image, name it CoralMap and click Save.

    Export parameters

  5. Click Export.

    Once the export is complete, you can add the image of the map to your report.

  6. Return to the report by clicking the Hawaii Deep Sea Corals in Protected Areas tab.

    Report view tab

    The report appears and is grayed out. Before you add elements, you must activate the area that you want to add the elements to. You'll add the images into the header area. You can do this by selecting the area in the Contents pane or by clicking the area in the report view.

  7. In the report view, click the gray space within the report header to activate it.

    Click header to activate it.

    When you select the report header, it becomes white which indicates that this subsection of the report is now active and ready for editing.

    Selected header in report view

    In the Contents pane, the Report Header element is also selected.

    Report Header selected in Contents pane.

    When you add the map image to the report, it'll be added to the active Report Header area.

  8. On the ribbon, click the Insert tab. In the Graphics section, click Picture.

    Add Picture button

  9. Browse to your CoralMap image that you exported, click it, and click OK.

    Your cursor becomes a crosshair, and you can draw a box in the report header area to place the image.

  10. Draw a box to place your image on the report header.

    Draw box for report.

    Note:

    The box you draw box does not have to be identical to the example because the image will be placed regardless of the box size. You can resize the image at any time.

    The image appears in the report header area.

    Map image in report

    In the Contents pane, the picture appears under the Report Header.

    Picture element added to Contents pane.

    Next, you'll add a chart. You saved the charts as images, but you can also add the charts directly as objects to your report.

  11. On the ribbon, on the Insert tab, in the Data section, click the down arrow for Chart Frame to see the chart options. Click the Coral Observations Over Time chart.

    Choose chart to add to report.

  12. Draw a box next to the map image to place the chart. Once the chart is added, experiment with its size and placement by selecting it and resizing or moving it.

    Map and chart added to report.

    Now that you've added some supporting elements, you will export the report.

  13. Confirm that the report view is active.

    You can share a report as either a .pdf file or a report file. In this scenario, you will generate a .pdf file to send to MPA managers to inform them of which deep-sea corals are located in protected areas.

  14. On the ribbon, on the Share tab, in the Output group, click Export Report.

    Export Report button

  15. In the Export Report pane, for Name, click the Browse button. Browse to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder click it and click Save.

    The report will be exported to the HawaiiDeepSeaCorals folder and is named Hawaii Deep Sea Coral in Marine Protected Areas.pdf.

  16. In the Export Report pane, click Export.
  17. When the export is complete, click View exported file.

    View exported file link

    The report appears, showing the map and chart in the report header and the other information that you specified.

  18. Explore the report and then save your project.

In this lesson, you investigated the NOAA National Database for Deep-Sea Corals and Sponges using the NOAA Deep-Sea Coral & Sponge Map Portal. You used the portal to locate and download coral data for the North Pacific Ocean. Using ArcGIS Pro, you imported, explored, enriched, and analyzed the data to gain a better understanding of deep-sea coral distribution and the depth at which corals are located. Finally, you generated a report summarizing some of your findings.

You can find more lessons in the Learn ArcGIS Lesson Gallery.