Create a map and change display units

First, you'll create a project and tailor it to the needs of your mission. You'll also define the map's display units, coordinate system, and extent. Lastly, you'll add a feature to the map to represent FOB Rookie.

Create a project

Before you can make a map, you must first create a project. A project contains maps, databases, toolboxes, styles, and other folders that may be useful when making your map.

  1. Start ArcGIS Pro. If prompted, sign in using your licensed ArcGIS account.
    Note:

    If you don't have ArcGIS Pro or an ArcGIS account, you can sign up for an ArcGIS free trial.

    When you open ArcGIS Pro, you're given the option to create a new project or open an existing one. If you've created a project before, you'll see a list of recent projects.

  2. Under New, click Map.

    New map-based project

  3. In the Create a New Project window, change the project name to FOB Rookie.

    The Create a New Project dialog box

    By default, a new project is saved to the ArcGIS folder, located in the user documents location on your computer's C drive. To save the project elsewhere, browse to a different location.

  4. Click OK.

    The project opens and displays a default map view.

Define your field training exercise map extent

The map extent is currently at its default. You'll set the extent to FOB Rookie, the location of your field training exercise.

  1. On the ribbon at the top of the page, click the Map tab. In the Inquiry group, click the Locate button.

    The Locate button on the ribbon

    The Locate pane appears. This pane helps you quickly find a location, whether it's an alphanumeric string or a place-name.

  2. In the Locate pane, in the Search box, type 10SFF1053652904 and press Enter.

    Locate

    This alphanumeric string is the 10-digit MGRS coordinate for your military base. Your map navigates to its location.

    Note:

    If your map doesn't zoom to that location, that means that you've changed the focus of your map. If necessary, click outside the Locate pane, and then click inside the text box and press Enter again.

    You're zoomed too close to the ground to encompass the area of the field training exercise. You need a smaller-scale map to see more of the local area.

  3. Zoom out and pan your map until you can see Monterey to the west and Salinas to the east.

    Map center

    Note:
    Window size affects map extents, so the maps pictured on your screen could differ slightly from the ones pictured in this lesson.

    Your field training exercise is actually on the former U.S. Army base of Fort Ord. The area is now known as the Fort Ord National Monument, a recreation area south of California State University, Monterey Bay. Now that you know the location of your field training exercise, you'll create a custom map extent, which allows you to quickly return to your initial view after panning and zooming a map.

  4. In the Contents pane, right-click Map and choose Properties.

    Properties option in the layer's context menu

  5. In the Map Properties window, click the Extent tab and click Use a custom extent.
  6. For Get extent from, click Current visible extent and click OK.

    Current visible extent in the Map Properties window

  7. Pan and zoom your map so that FOB Rookie is no longer in the center.
  8. On the Map tab, in the Navigate group, click the Full Extent button.

    The Full Extent button on the ribbon

    Your map returns to its custom extent.

Change map display units and coordinate system

Next, you'll change the map display units, which are the real-world coordinate values that correspond with the pointer's location on the map, to match military standards. You'll also change the coordinate system to one appropriate for your scale and area.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click Map and click Properties.

    One of the properties that can be changed is the display units, which by default are decimal degrees. You'll change them to the Military Grid Reference System (MGRS). MGRS is a grid-based system for representing locations that was devised by the U.S. Army to minimize the confusion of long numeric coordinates. It replaces some of those numerals with letters.

  2. Click the General tab. Change Display units to MGRS.

    Display units set to MGRS

    Next, you'll change the coordinate system to also match military standards.

  3. In the Map Properties window, click the Coordinate Systems tab.

    MGRS is extended from the universal transverse Mercator (UTM) grid, so it would be best to choose a UTM-projected coordinate system. Since there are many UTM projections for different zones of the earth, it's important to pick the right one.

  4. Next to the search box, click Spatial Filter and choose Set spatial filter.

    Set spatial filter in the Coordinate system window

  5. In the Spatial Filter Extent window, click Current visible extent and click Apply.

    The list of available coordinate systems is now filtered to show only those that overlap with your map's extent.

  6. Click the arrow next to Projected Coordinate System to expand it. (You may have to scroll down or expand the window to see it.)

    Later in the lesson, you'll make some distance measurements, so it's important to use a projected coordinate system that minimized distortions for your area.

  7. Expand UTM and expand WGS 1984.
  8. Expand Northern Hemisphere and click WGS 1984 UTM Zone 10N.

    The Current XY box updates with the new coordinate system.

    WGS 1984 UTM Zone 10N

    There is only one coordinate system inside the WGS 1984 subfolder because none of the others satisfy the spatial filter you set earlier.

  9. Click OK.

    The appearance of your map changes to reflect the UTM Zone 10N projected coordinate system, but not dramatically. The display units at the bottom of the map view change from decimal degrees to MGRS.

    MGRS coordinates

    The first two numbers and the first letter of MGRS represent a specific area of latitude and longitude known as a Grid Zone Designator (GZD). The next two letters reference 100,000 grid squares within the GZD, and the final 10 digits specify one square millimeter. More digits mean more specific locations.

Create a point feature

Next, you'll create a feature that represents FOB Rookie. First, you must create a point layer that you can edit.

  1. On the ribbon, click the Analysis tab. In the Geoprocessing group, click Tools.

    The Tools button on the ribbon

    The Geoprocessing pane appears.

  2. In the Geoprocessing pane, in the search box, type Create Feature Class.
  3. In the search results, click Create Feature Class (Data Management Tools).

    The Create Feature Class tool in the Geoprocessing search results

    The Create Feature Class tool opens. The first parameter, Feature Class Location, is already filled. When you created your project, the software automatically created a corresponding geodatabase to store your project's data.

  4. In the Create Feature Class parameters, for Feature Class Name, type FOBRookie.
  5. Change the geometry type to Point.
  6. For the coordinate system, choose Current Map [Map].

    The coordinate system automatically changes to match the coordinate system of the map.

    The Create Feature Class tool with parameters filled in

  7. Click Run.

    An empty feature class is created, and a corresponding point layer, FOBRookie, is added to the Contents pane. You'll take a look at where the feature class is stored in your project's files so you can access it in the future.

  8. Click the Catalog tab (at the lower right of your screen).

    Catalog tab

  9. In the Catalog pane, expand the Databases folder, then expand the FOB Rookie database.

    FOB Rookie.gdb expanded in the Catalog pane

    The FOB Rookie geodatabase stores the FOB Rookie point feature.

    The FOB Rookie layer is also listed in the Contents pane, but it doesn't appear on the map because it doesn't contain any features yet. You'll edit the layer to create a point feature that represents FOB Rookie.

  10. On the ribbon, click the Edit tab. In the Features group, click Create.

    The Create button on the ribbon

    The Create Features pane appears and lists a feature template for the FOBRookie layer.

  11. In the Create Features pane, click FOBRookie to display the construction tools to create point features.
  12. Confirm that the Point tool is chosen.

    Point creation tool in the Create Features pane

  13. Go back to the Locate pane, where the location 10SFF1053652904 is still listed. Right-click it and choose Add To Feature Class.

    Add To Feature Class option on the location's context menu

  14. On the Edit tab, in the Manage Edits group, click Save.

    The Save button on the Edit tab of the ribbon

  15. In the Save Edits window, click Yes to save all edits.
  16. Close the Locate pane.

    Your new point feature is added to the map as a small dot near the label for Fort Ord National Monument. Next, you'll change its symbol.

  17. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Navigate group, click Explore.
  18. In the Contents pane, click the point symbol for the FOBRookie layer.

    Note:
    The color of your default point symbol may vary.

    Point symbol for ROBRookie in the Contents pane

    The Symbology pane appears. This pane has a gallery of default symbols you can use.

  19. Search the symbol gallery for Military Base. Click the largest Military Base icon.

    Military base symbol in the point symbol Gallery

    The Military Base icon replaces the generic point symbol in the Contents pane and on the map.

    Your map is now ready for your first field exercise combating the Monterey Liberation Front.

  20. Above the ribbon, on the Quick Access Toolbar, click the Save button to save your project.

    Save button

You've started a project and modified the default map to prepare for your first field training exercise. Next, you'll download your field training exercise data to better understand the hit-and-run attack patterns of the insurgents. You'll also download a working aid that explains insurgent activity in the FOB Rookie area.


Download and symbolize data

While working on your first field training exercise, an intelligence officer tells you to download an Excel spreadsheet and plot its location data. Your mission is to analyze the data to help counter an enemy whose attacks have caused significant damage to FOB Rookie.

Download the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and FOB Working Aid

In these steps, you'll download the documents you'll need to complete this lesson.

  1. Go to the Actionable Intelligence group.
  2. Click the thumbnail of the Insurgent Activity Excel spreadsheet to download it.

    Insurgent Activity

    Depending on your browser, the spreadsheet may appear on your downloads bar, or you may be prompted to open or save the file.

  3. Save the spreadsheet (InsurgentActivity_spreadsheet.xlsx) to a location on your computer, such as your desktop. Remember the location so you can browse to it.

    The other two files are PDF files. You will have to open each document and then download them.

  4. Download the FOB Rookie Working Aid to the same location.
  5. Download the Actionable Intelligence PowerPoint to the same location.

    Depending on your browser, the PDF documents might open directly in the browser. That view should include a download button.

    The FOB Rookie Working Aid explains the spreadsheet and provides additional details needed to perform predictive analysis later in the lesson. You may want to review its contents before continuing. You may also want to print or keep this document open as a quick reference.

Load the spreadsheet into the map

Next, you'll import the Excel spreadsheet as a table in ArcGIS Pro.

  1. If necessary, open your FOB Rookie project in ArcGIS Pro.
  2. On the ribbon at the top of the page, click the Analysis tab and click Tools to open the Geoprocessing pane.
  3. At the top of the Geoprocessing pane, search for Excel To table.
  4. In the search results, click Excel To Table (Conversion Tools).

    Excel To Table tool in the Geoprocessing search results

  5. In the Excel To Table parameters, next to Input Excel File, click the Browse button. Browse to the InsurgentActivity_spreadsheet.xlsx, click it, and click OK.
  6. Change the output table name to InsurgentActivity (no space between the words). For Sheet, choose Sheet1.

    Excel To Table tool with parameters filled in

  7. Click Run.

    The imported InsurgentActivity table is added to the Contents pane.

    Next, you'll open the table to see what data it contains.

  8. In the Contents pane, under Standalone Tables, right-click the InsurgentActivity table and choose Open.

    Open option in the table's context menu

    The table opens below your map view. In ArcGIS Pro, you can drag a table to anywhere on your screen. When you drag the table, docking targets appear with options to position the table in relation to the map.

    Docking targets

  9. If necessary, click the InsurgentActivity tab and drag the table to a location where you can view more of the data.
  10. Resize the table and familiarize yourself with its contents.

    The file has 107 rows of data that depict three months of hostile activity in the FOB Rookie area beginning on January 1, 2015. The table columns, from left to right, include fragments of information that relate to each attack:

    • Attack time (local time in the Pacific time zone)
    • Day of the week
    • Moonlight illumination percentage on that day
    • General location of the attack
    • Attack coordinates in MGRS
    • Attack coordinates in decimal degrees, both longitude and latitude
    • Attack type
    • Primary weapon used in the attack
    • Insurgent network responsible for the attack
    • Rocket launch and impact points in MGRS
    • Rocket launch and impact points in decimal degrees, both latitude and longitude
    • Remarks for significant information relating to the attack

    The table has columns for both MGRS coordinates and corresponding x- and y-coordinates in decimal degrees. This is not redundant information; ArcGIS Pro requires x- and y-coordinates to plot geospatial data on a map.

    The table also has columns for the attack types of In-Direct Fire (IDF), Small-Arms Fire (SAF), Surface-to-Air Missiles (SAM), and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). In the table, these attack types generally reference a location where the attack took place. IDF is associated with two locations because they involve a launch site and an impact point, which, depending on the caliber of the rocket, could be up to 20 kilometers apart in this exercise (battlefield technology does not always detect a rocket's launch point, so some rocket attacks will list impact points and no launch points). SAMs are missiles, and their data references one launch point but no impact point. Refer to the Attack Types entry in the Working Aid for more information.

  11. Close the InsurgentActivity table.

Plot data on the map

The table contains the data you need to analyze. First, you'll display its geospatial data on the map.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the InsurgentActivity table and choose Display XY Data.

    Display XY Data

    The XY Table To Point tool opens in the Geoprocessing pane. This tool creates a point layer based on x- and y-coordinates in a table. For more information about event layers, see Add x,y coordinate data as a layer.

  2. Change Output Feature Class to RocketsLaunch.
  3. Change X Field to Longitude launch and Y Field to Latitude launch.
  4. If necessary, for Coordinate System, choose GCS_WGS_1984, which is the spatial reference of the coordinates in the Excel table.

    The XY Table To Point tool with parameters filled in

    Tip:

    If your coordinate system is not already set to GCS_WGS_1984, click the Select Coordinate System button. In the Coordinate System dialog box, search for 4326 and choose WGS 1984.

  5. Click Run.

    Map points

    The RocketsLaunch layer is added to the map. It displays points for each rocket launch location in the table. (The color of your points may vary.)

    You've added the rocket launch points to the map, but your table also contains x- and y-coordinates for rocket impact and attack locations. You'll run the XY Table To Point tool two more times to add points to the map for these locations.

  6. Change Output Feature Class to RocketsImpact
  7. Change X Field to Longitude impact.
  8. Change Y Field to Latitude impact.

    The XY Table To Point tool with parameters filled in

  9. Click Run.
  10. Follow the same process to make a layer from the x- and y-coordinates of the Attack longitude and Attack latitude fields. Name the layer Attacks_JanMarch_2015.

    The XY Table To Point tool with parameters filled in

    Optionally, you could rename the RocketsImpact and RocketsLaunch layers to reflect the same date range as the Attacks layer. The dates give you a reference point for the data, but they can also clutter your Contents pane.

  11. Click Run.

    Map with point features

  12. Save the project.

You've successfully used geospatial data from a spreadsheet to display corresponding locations on your FOB Rookie analysis map. Next, you'll modify the point symbols to be more characteristic of the features they represent.

Symbolize the battlefield

Symbolizing the data will help you visualize the battlefield. Currently, each point layer uses a single symbol for all its features. In the Attacks layer, this is acceptable for the rocket launch and rocket impact points because they are both associated with in-direct fire. But the Attacks layer also contains points for small arms fire, surface to air missiles, and improvised explosive devices, so these attack types should be categorized differently so you can easily identify them on the map.

  1. If necessary, in the Contents pane, click the Attacks_JanMarch_2015 layer to select it.

    When you select a layer in the Contents pane, the Feature Layer contextual tab appears on the ribbon with three associated tabs that contain tools specific to the feature layer.

  2. On the Appearance tab, in the Drawing group, click the Symbology menu and choose Unique Values.

    Unique Values in the Symbology menu on the ribbon

    You can use Unique Values to apply symbols to different attribute values.

  3. In the Symbology pane, for Field 1, choose Attack type.

    Field 1 set to Attack type in the Symbology pane

    The Attacks layer now draws with four different colored symbols, based on the attack type. The <all other values> category symbolizes any points without an attack type, of which there are none, so you'll remove this category.

  4. Click the More menu and uncheck Show all other values.

    Show all other values in the Symbology pane's More menu

    The <all other values> category is removed from the list of values.

  5. In the Contents pane, click the symbol for the IDF attack type.

    IDF symbol in the Contents pane

    The Symbology pane displays a gallery of symbols.

  6. Scroll through the gallery and click Square 3.

    Square 3 symbol in the point symbol Gallery

    When you select a symbol from the gallery, the map updates accordingly.

    In military symbology, red is always the color that represents hostile activity.

  7. Follow the same process to change the other symbols for the Attacks layer:

    • IED: Star 3
    • SAF: Triangle 3
    • SAM: Circle 3

    Tip:

    You can filter the gallery by searching for a symbol by name.

    Next, you'll update the symbols for the rocket launch and impact layers.

  8. In the Contents pane, click the symbol for the RocketsImpact layer.
  9. In the Symbology pane, filter the gallery by searching for Cross, and click Cross 1.
  10. Follow the same process to change the symbol for the RocketsLaunch layer to Cross 3.

    Map symbols

  11. Save the project.
Note:

Militaries have detailed and exact drawing standards for battlefield symbology. A simplified version of battlefield symbology was used for this lesson.

You've converted a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a table and symbolized its data on the battlefield map. Next, you'll modify the attribute table to convert attacks from local time to coordinated universal time (UTC), the international 24-hour time standard for much of the military and civilian worlds.


Convert time format and time zone

Convert time format

In the spreadsheet you downloaded earlier, the attack date and time values reference local time. When you used the Excel To Table tool, the temporal data was stored in the attribute table as a text string instead of as a date. You'll reformat the temporal data to create time stamps, a requirement for converting local time to UTC.

  1. If necessary, open your FOB Rookie project in ArcGIS Pro.
  2. Click the Analysis tab. In the Geoprocessing group, click Tools.
  3. In the Geoprocessing pane, search for Convert Time Field and choose the Convert Time Field (Data Management Tools) tool.

    Convert Time Field in the Geoprocessing search results

  4. In the Convert Time Field parameters, for Input Table, choose RocketsLaunch.
  5. For Input Time Field, choose Attack time (local).

    For the next parameter, Input Time Format, you need to specify the format in which the time values were stored in the input time field.

  6. For Input Time Format, type yyyy/mm/dd HH:mm:ss. (The format is case sensitive and there is a blank space between dd and HH.)
  7. For Output Time Field, type Pacific_Standard_Time. (You must include the underscores.)

    This field will be created when you run the tool.

  8. If necessary, for Output Time Type, choose Date.

    The Convert Time Field tool with parameters filled in

  9. Click Run.
  10. Open the RocketsLaunch table, scroll to the far right, and view the time format of the new Pacific_Standard_Time column.

    Pacific Standard Time column

    The time and date from the first column are displayed in the reformatted date type.

    For more information about time stamps, see Supported field formats in the ArcGIS Pro help as well as the Convert Time Field and Convert Time Zone geoprocessing tools.

Convert time zone

Your field exercise is in the Pacific time zone, which is seven or eight hours behind UTC depending on Pacific standard time (PST) or Pacific daylight saving time (PDST). The Convert Time Zone geoprocessing tool converts properly formatted time stamps into any time zone regardless of whether a time zone is observing daylight saving time.

  1. In the Geoprocessing pane, click the Back button.
  2. If necessary, search for and open the Convert Time Zone tool. (It may still be the second tool listed on the pane.)
  3. In the Convert Time Zone parameters, for Input Table, choose RocketsLaunch.
  4. For Input Time Field, choose Pacific_Standard_Time.
  5. For Input Time Zone, choose Pacific_Standard_Time.
  6. For Output Time Field, type Coordinated_Universal_Time.
  7. If necessary, for Output Time Zone, choose UTC.

    Next, you'll verify that the tool is set to reflect changes in daylight saving time.

  8. Click Daylight Saving Time to expand it.

    Daylight Saving Time in the Convert Time Zone tool

    Both boxes are checked, so the tool will reflect time zone changes. In the spring, the Pacific time zone adopts Pacific daylight saving time and moves forward one hour, which puts it seven hours behind UTC. In the fall, the Pacific time zone reverts to Pacific standard time, which puts it eight hours behind UTC.

  9. Click Run.
  10. In the RocketsLaunch table, scroll to the right and view the Coordinated_Universal_Time column.

    Coordinated Universal Time column

  11. In the Coordinated_Universal_Time column, scroll down to the rows for 3/7/2015 and 3/13/2015.

    Adjusted time in the attribute table

    The table now reflects that, between 3/7/2015 and 3/13/2015, Pacific daylight saving time was adopted. The time differences between Pacific standard time and coordinated universal time on these dates are automatically adjusted from eight to seven hours.

  12. Save the project.

Edit the table

The geoprocessing tools you just used created and populated the last two columns in the RocketsLaunch table. Now, you'll edit the column headings to make them more readable.

  1. Right-click the column heading for Pacific_Standard_Time and choose Fields.

    Fields option in the column's context menu

    The Fields view opens for the RocketsLaunch table. It lists all the fields in the table and their properties. Within the Fields view, you can create new fields, delete fields, and modify existing fields and properties.

    Fields view

  2. In the Alias column, double-click the field with Pacific_Standard_Time so it becomes editable.
  3. Remove the underscores between the words and replace them with spaces.
  4. In the same manner, for the Coordinated_Universal_Time alias, remove the underscores and replace them with blank spaces.
  5. On the ribbon, in the Fields tab, in the Changes group, click Save.

    Save button on the ribbon

  6. Close the Fields view.

    Without underscores, your RocketsLaunch attribute table is easier to read.

    No underscores in the table column header

  7. Close the table and save the project.

You've converted local time from a text format to a date format to create time stamps and synchronize your data with UTC. Next, you'll visualize data to identify insurgent behavioral patterns—a necessary step in preventing future attacks on FOB Rookie.


Apply spatial analysis

Through spatial analysis in this module and temporal analysis in the module, you'll begin a predictive analysis of the data. Predictive analysis involves examining recent behavior to predict events. Detecting patterns plays a key role in defeating an enemy force. There is no one right way to detect patterns; it's often left to the imagination and tools of analysts. Your predictive analysis will analyze patterns in the location and time of attacks on FOB Rookie. To find these patterns, you'll use the Multiple Ring Buffer geoprocessing tool and the time slider.

Near the end of your shift on March 31, an insurgent missile strike at 4:00 a.m. (local time) on FOB Rookie inflicted significant damage and casualties. At this moment, much of the information involving a sudden spike in the number of attacks from the previous 24 hours has yet to be reported or analyzed. Despite the missing details, your mission is to identify the attacker or attackers to help prevent additional rocket attacks on FOB Rookie. By analyzing insurgent patterns from data within the table and map, you'll determine the insurgent network responsible for this morning's rocket attack.

Remove distracting data

Before you begin your analysis, you'll remove redundant or distracting information to better focus on the relevant information. At this point, all you know is the information listed in the Working Aid and derived from the InsurgentActivity table, including the 4:00 a.m. rocket strike. Your first step is to turn off nonmissile activity data because your task involves identifying future missile launch locations.

  1. If necessary, open your FOB Rookie project in ArcGIS Pro.
  2. In the Contents pane, uncheck the Attacks_JanMarch_2015 layer.

    You’re focusing on rocket launch points, so rocket impact locations are unnecessary for your map.

  3. Uncheck the RocketsImpact layer.

    RocketsImpact layer on the map

    Now, you have a map allowing you to better focus on your goal: identifying the launch point for the next rocket attack on FOB Rookie.

Apply range rings

According to the Weapon column in the table, the most common rockets used in the Monterey area are the 107mm and 122mm. The working aid explains that the 107mm has a maximum range of 8 kilometers and the 122mm has a maximum range of 20 kilometers. You'll use the Multiple Ring Buffer tool so you can add range rings around FOB Rookie. That way, you’ll be able to visualize the caliber of rocket and the insurgent network that fired it.

  1. On the ribbon, click the Analysis tab and click Tools.
  2. Search for and open Multiple Ring Buffer (Analysis Tools).
  3. For Input Features, choose FOBRookie.
  4. For Output Feature class, change the name to RocketRanges8km20km.
  5. For Distances, type 8 and press Enter.

    A new buffer distance box appears after you enter the first distance value.

  6. For the second buffer distance, type 20 and press Enter.

    A third distance box is added, but the tool will disregard it, since it is empty.

  7. For Buffer Unit, choose Kilometers.

    Multiple Ring Buffer tool with parameters filled in

  8. Leave the other parameters unchanged.
  9. Click Run. If necessary, zoom out so you can see the range rings.

    Multiple Ring Buffer results on the map

    Note:

    The Multiple Ring Buffer tool uses Euclidian distances when calculating buffers, which does not factor the curvature of the earth. Because you have chosen an appropriate projection and are working in a relatively small study area, the difference between Euclidian and geodesic differences is negligible. To measure larger distances, you would want to use the Buffer tool instead. This tool only produces single rings, but gives you the option of performing geodesic buffering, which will give you more accurate distance calculations.

    In the new RocketRanges layer, the outer ring represents the 20-kilometer range from FOB Rookie and the inner ring represents the 8-kilometer range. 122mm rockets were probably fired from launch sites within the outer ring, and 107mm rockets were probably fired from launch sites within the inner ring.

    Range rings are important for your analysis because they will allow you to differentiate between 107mm and 122mm rockets.

    Next, you'll adjust the transparency for the RocketRanges layer to see the basemap under it.

  10. In the Contents pane, click the symbol for RocketRanges8km20km.
  11. In the Symbology pane, click Properties and change Outline color to black and Outline width to 2. Optionally, change the fill color to a lighter shade that contrasts with the basemap.

    Outline color set to black and 2 pt

  12. Click Apply.

    Next, you'll adjust the transparency for the RocketRanges layer to see the basemap under it.

  13. On the ribbon, click the Appearance tab. In the Effects group, drag the Layer Transparency slider to 60 percent.

    Transparency control on the ribbon

    You can now see the basemap below the RocketRanges layer.

Change basemaps

Terrain often dictates tactics and strategy. Enemy intentions and patterns may become clear when you use different basemaps to compare and contrast topology.

  1. On the ribbon, click the Map tab. In the Layer group, click Basemap and choose Terrain with Labels.

    Terrain with Labels in the basemap gallery

    The new map reflects terrain with place-names.

  2. Zoom in to the launch sites to the east of FOB Rookie.

    Map zoomed to Highway 68 with terrain basemap

    The launch sites along Highway 68 are concentrated on the road, while launch locations in the flat terrain northeast of Highway 17 are more likely to be dispersed, meaning insurgents in this area tend to (but do not always) disperse when firing.

  3. Change the basemap to Imagery.
  4. Uncheck the RocketRanges8km20km layer.

    Map zoomed to the south of Salinas with Imagery basemap

    Insurgents near the city of Salinas, when firing from flat terrain, tend to prefer farm fields and avoid urban areas.

  5. Pan to the area west of FOB Rookie.

    Map zoomed to the west of FOB Rookie with Imagery basemap

    By panning, you can compare the behaviors of insurgents to the east and west of FOB Rookie. The insurgents to the west of FOB Rookie are more willing to fire rockets from urban areas (and in one event, from the ocean) than insurgents east of FOB Rookie.

  6. Change the basemap to Streets.
  7. Pan to the area north of FOB Rookie.

    Map zoomed to the north of FOB Rookie with Streets basemap

    Because the Streets basemap emphasizes roads, you can gather more details about the types and names of roads that insurgents are likely to use to travel to and from launch sites.

  8. Check the RocketRanges8km20km layer to turn it back on.
  9. Change the basemap to Topographic.
  10. On the Map tab, in the Navigate group, click the Full Extent button to zoom out to see all rocket launches on the map.

Identify insurgents via attribute selection

To help identify the insurgents responsible for this morning's IDF attack, you'll select attributes from the table to find insurgent networks commonly linked to the IDF attack type.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the RocketsLaunch layer and choose Attribute Table.
  2. On the ribbon, on the Map tab, in the Selection group, click Select By Attributes.

    The Select By Attributes button on the ribbon

    The Geoprocessing pane opens to the Select Layer By Attribute tool.

  3. Leave Selection type as New selection.
  4. Click New expression.
  5. Build the expression Where Attack type is equal to IDF.

    The Select Layer By Attribute tool with parameters filled in

  6. Click Run to apply the selection.
  7. At the bottom of the table, click the Show selected records button.

    The Show selected records button

  8. Scroll across the table until you can see both the Attack type and Network columns.

    You can see that 64 of the 107 attacks involve indirect fire (IDF). These attacks are exclusively associated with the Green and Yellow networks. Two of the IDF attacks from this morning—the rocket strikes at 00:30 local time and 04:00 local time—are still missing network data, so you don't yet know which networks are responsible for firing those rockets.

    The FOB Rookie Working Aid explains that the Green and Yellow insurgent networks both fire 107mm and 122mm rockets, a fact corroborated by the table data. You'll symbolize their launch sites so you can distinguish these networks from the others.

  9. At the bottom of the table, click the Show all records button.

    The Show all records button

  10. On the table toolbar, click the Clear Selection button.

    The Clear Selection button

  11. Close the RocketsLaunch attribute table.
  12. In the Contents pane, click the RocketsLaunch symbol to open the Symbology pane.
  13. Click the Properties tab and click the Layers tab.

    The Properties and Layers tabs in the Symbology pane

  14. Click the menu button and check Allow symbol property connections.

    The Allow symbol property connections option in the Symbology pane options menu

    This option allows you to derive symbol properties directly from attribute values. You will use it to match the color of the symbols to their network names.

  15. Next to Color, click the Attribute Mapping button.

    The Attribute Mapping button next to Color

  16. On the Set Attribute Mapping dialog box, choose Network and click OK.

    Network chosen on the Set Attribute Mapping dialog box

  17. In the Symbology pane, click Apply.

    The rocket launch symbols on the map are now color-coded to represent the network to which each belongs. Two of the symbols remain red. These are the attacks from this morning that don't yet have a defined network.

    Map symbols colored based on their network names

  18. If necessary, on the Map tab, in the Navigate group, click the Explore tool to activate it. Click both of the red unclassified rocket launch features to display their pop-up windows and review their attributes.

    The launches were made by unidentified networks at 12:30 a.m. and 4:00 a.m. This information will help you identify which network was the likely attacker. You can also see that the attack type was IDF. You already know that only the green and yellow networks have been responsible for IDF in the past, so you want to rule out the blue network as a possibility.

  19. Close the pop-up.
  20. In the Contents pane, right-click the RocketsLaunch layer and choose Properties.
  21. Click the Definition Query tab and click New definition query.
  22. Construct the query Where Attack type is equal to IDF.

    A constructed definition query

  23. Click Apply and OK.

    The blue symbols disappear from the map.

  24. Save the project.

Configure pop-ups

Next, you'll reconfigure the RocketsLaunch layer pop-ups to reduce the number of attributes and display only relevant information.

This section will help you quickly analyze the red dots because the information associated with those point features contains data associated with rocket launches. Those features are likely associated with the Green or Yellow networks.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the RocketsLaunch layer and choose Configure Pop-ups.
  2. In the Configure Pop-ups pane, click the first text box to edit the title of the pop-up.

    Pop-up title

  3. For Title Options, click the Field menu and choose Coordinated_Universal_Time {Coordinated_Universal_Time}.
    Note:

    If the Field menu isn't active, click anywhere on the map and then click the Title Options pane. Or, highlight and delete the text within the Title Options pane to activate the Field menu.

    Choose Field Coordinated_Universal_Time

    Note:

    Having Coordinated Universal Time in your titles means your pop-ups will be in sync with the international timing standard used in the military and civilian worlds.

  4. If necessary, delete {Attacktime_local_} so only {Coordinated_Universal_Time} shows.
  5. Click the Back button.
  6. Click the Text button.

    The Text button in the Configure Pop-ups pane

  7. In the highlighted Text setting, click the Edit pop-up element button.

    The Edit Text button in the Configure Pop-ups pane

  8. For Text Options, delete the text and type Rocket Launch Activity 1/1/2015-3/31/2015.
  9. Using the format buttons, underline and bold the text.

    Text Options in the Configure Pop-ups pane

  10. Click the Back button.

    You'll also choose which fields to display in the pop-up and exclude unnecessary information.

  11. Next to the Fields setting, click the Edit pop-up element button.

    The Edit pop-up element button

  12. For Field Options, uncheck the Display box for the following fields:
    • OBJECTID
    • Attack location
    • Attack coords
    • Attack longitude
    • Attack latitude
    • Longitude launch
    • Latitude launch
    • Longitude impact
    • Latitude impact
    • Pacific Standard Time
  13. Click the Back button.
  14. On the map, click any Rocket Launch point feature to view its pop-up.

    To avoid clutter, you can drag the pop-up to another part of your screen. You can also expand the pop-up by dragging its edges.

  15. In the lower right of the pop-up, click the button to flash this feature on the active map.

    The Flash Feature button on a pop-up

    The feature linked to the pop-up momentarily turns cyan blue.

  16. Close the pop-up. Close the Configure Pop-ups pane.
  17. Save the project.

    Now the pop-ups give quick, relevant information about particular features.

You've analyzed spatial patterns in the rocket launch data by changing basemaps, creating buffers, and applying symbology. Next, you'll analyze temporal patterns.


Apply temporal analysis

First, you'll configure the time slider and analyze the rocket launch times of the Green and Yellow networks. You'll also edit the attribute table after receiving new information about the rocket attack and identify the insurgent networks associated with the launch points.

Configure the time slider

First, you'll configure the time slider to illustrate rocket launch times among the Green and Yellow networks.

  1. If necessary, open your FOB Rookie project in ArcGIS Pro.
  2. In the Contents pane, right-click the RocketsLaunch layer and choose Properties.
  3. In the Layer Properties window, click the Time tab.
  4. For Layer Time, choose Each feature has a single time field. Ensure that Time Field is set to Pacific Standard Time.

    Layer Time in the Layer Properties window

    This setting is for features with time stamps stored in a single attribute field. You created an attribute field with time stamps previously.

    The default settings for time properties are fine for this analysis. The Time Field setting defaults to the first field in the table that is formatted as a date: Pacific Standard Time. Because the table has both local and coordinated universal time, you can perform analysis using local time while having the UTC information necessary for standardized reports.

    The Time Extent setting updated to reflect the date range from the values in the RocketsLaunch layer: 1/1/2015 1:00:00 AM to 3/31/2015 5:00:00 AM.

  5. Click OK.

    The time slider appears at the top of the map. When you point to it, the slider displays the date range, buttons, and a solid line indicating when the data is visible on the time slider. The Map contextual tab appears on the ribbon with an associated Time tab, which contains tools specific to the time slider. You'll first watch the launch times as they appear so you can detect rocket-firing patterns among the Green and Yellow networks.

  6. On the ribbon, click the Time tab.

    The Time tab on the ribbon

    You have multiple ways to set the start and end times in the Current Time group. You want the time slider to consider all the IDF events from the table. The Full Extent group on the Time tab displays the start and end time for all time-enabled data, so you can copy the information from there.

  7. Use the keyboard shortcuts of Ctrl+C and Ctrl+V to copy the Start time from the Full Extent group and paste it into the Start time in the Current Time group.

    Start parameter on the ribbon

  8. Copy the End time from the Full Extent group and paste it into the End time in the Current Time group. Press Enter to calculate the days between the start and end times.

    Start and End parameters on the ribbon

    The Span box shows almost 90 days, which is the time you want to display in the time slider to see when, and on which days, the Green and Yellow networks were launching rockets. Next, you'll arrange the time slider so new data appears in 24-hour increments.

  9. In the Step group, uncheck the Use Time Span box.
  10. Next to Step Interval, type 1 in the first box.
  11. If necessary, in the adjoining box, choose Days.

    Step Interval parameter on the ribbon

  12. In the Full Extent group, click the drop-down arrow and choose the RocketsLaunch layer.

    Full Extent parameter on the ribbon

    Now, only data reflecting rocket launches will appear as the time slider progresses through the steps.

  13. On the time slider, click the Play button.

    The Play button on the time slider

    As time passes, note the hours and days as launch times are added to the map (some days will pass without any new events added). You can pause the time slider, as well as click the Back and Forward buttons, at any time while it plays.

    With each step representing a 24-hour period, many of the launch points appeared simultaneously. These one-day step intervals are too general for your analysis. You'll divide your step intervals into two-hour blocks so the launch times appear at different intervals, allowing you to identify the time of day (morning twilight, day, evening twilight, night) when rockets were fired. The timing of these rocket launches is critical for your analysis because they could allow you to detect behavioral differences between the Green and Yellow networks. Review the Green and Yellow networks, as well as the Moon Illumination entry, in your FOB Rookie Working Aid.

  14. On the Time tab, in the Step group, change Step Interval to 2 Hours.

    Step Interval parameter on the ribbon

    Tip:

    Changing a 24-hour time period into two-hour blocks will slow the time slider considerably. The time slider will now take several minutes to complete. In the Playback group, you can adjust the speed of the time slider from Slower to Faster to compensate.

    Playback Speed parameter on the ribbon

  15. In the Time Slider window, click the Play button.

    As the launch events become visible in two-hour steps, note the times of day and how they correspond to the Moon Illumination chart in the FOB Rookie Working Aid. Note the patterns of the launch locations. Also notice how the Yellow network tends to fire rockets during evening twilight or after dusk and the Green network tends to fire rockets before dawn or during morning twilight.

  16. After the time slider has finished, click the red point feature to the northeast of FOB Rookie to view its pop-up.

    This feature was the last firing event to appear on the time slider. The time of the launch—in this case, 4:00 a.m. local time or 11:00 a.m. UTC—indicates this rocket launch is likely associated with the Green network, which favors predawn and morning twilight launches. If it were part of the Yellow network, it would have been fired several hours earlier.

    The northernmost red feature on the map

    Notice how the Green network, more so than the Yellow network, tends to concentrate its firing in spatial clusters. This means the Green network has inadvertently telegraphed the location of its next rocket launch at FOB Rookie, because the red dot suggests it's the first of several launches from that general area.

  17. Close the pop-up.
  18. Click the red dot to the southwest of FOB Rookie and open its pop-up.

    Pop-up

    This pop-up shows a 12:30 a.m. firing (listed as 00:30 AM local time in the table), and considering its location is near Yellow network launch points, it's likely that red point feature is actually part of the Yellow network. Further, that feature is well inside the 107mm rocket range ring, so it's likely a 107mm rocket.

  19. Close the pop-up.

In total, from the results of your analysis, working aid, geoprocessing tools, and time slider, you can now conclude the following:

  • The Yellow and Green networks both fire 107mm and 122mm rockets, but the Yellow network tends to stay close to Marina, while the Green network stays close to Salinas.
  • Rockets fired inside the first buffer are generally 107mm, and those fired within the second buffer are 122mm.
  • The Green network tends to fire rockets from the same area on successive nights, while the Yellow network tends to scatter its launch locations on successive nights.
  • The Yellow network fires after dark, while the Green network fires before dawn.
  • The Green and Yellow networks, while firing at night, tend to be inactive when moonlight is at less than 75 percent illumination and active with more than 75 percent illumination.
  • The circled red dot northeast of FOB Rookie was the firing location of the lethal 4:00 a.m. rocket.
  • Based on the location of that firing point, the fired rocket was most likely 107mm.

Your mission is to produce detailed predictions to prevent future attacks. That means you need to accurately assess the time and place of the next launch. But at this point, you still need confirmation about which network fired the lethal rocket. That information would, combined with the conclusions above, allow you to provide actionable intelligence to your commander.

Edit the attribute table

The attribute table still contains empty fields for the rocket attacks this morning. You'll edit the table to represent your analysis reflecting their network associations. By updating the stand-alone table, you'll also update all the layers on the map that were created using this table. The values you'll add are the missing weapon type and the networks associated with the rocket attacks at 00:30 a.m. and 4:00 a.m. Your intelligence officer informs you that the missile fired at 4:00 a.m. was a 107mm rocket, confirming the conclusion you reached with the help of the Multiple Ring Buffer tool. The officer does not know which network fired the missile.

  1. In the Contents pane, open the RocketsLaunch table.
  2. On the Map tab, in the Selection group, click Select.
  3. On the map, click the southernmost red feature.
  4. At the bottom of the table, click the Show selected records button.
  5. Scroll to the right of the table until you see the Weapon and Network columns.
  6. In the Weapon column, double-click the empty table cell to edit it.
  7. Type 107mm and press Tab.
  8. In the Network column, type Yellow and press Enter.

    Edited field values in the attribute table

  9. On the map, click the northernmost red feature to select it.
  10. In the attribute table, edit the Weapon and Network values for the selected field to be 107mm and Green.
  11. On the Edit tab, in the Manage Edits group, click Save.
  12. In the Save Edits window, click Yes to save all edits.
  13. On the Map tab, in the Navigate group, click Explore. In the Selection group, click Clear.
  14. Close the attribute table.

    New yellow and green features on the map

    The 4:00 a.m. launch location has turned green, which reflects its association with the Green network. Clicking its pop-up reflects its newly identified Green network association. The 12:30 a.m. launch location has turned yellow, reflecting the Yellow network.

  15. Save the project.

Identify insurgent launch locations

At this point, you're concerned with the 4:00 a.m. rocket because the Green network has found a location to launch successful attacks against FOB Rookie. You want to focus on the location for its next launch.

Now that you know that the Green network fired the 4:00 a.m. rocket, and you've become familiar with its typical launch times, you'll confirm its behavioral patterns to determine the likely location of that network's next launch. You'll update the time slider to show only the Green network's launch times so you can identify its launch patterns.

  1. In the Contents pane, right-click the RocketsLaunch layer and choose Properties.
  2. Click the Definition Query tab.
  3. For Query 1, click Edit.

    The Edit button on the existing definition query

  4. Edit the existing to query to state Where Network is equal to Green.
  5. Click Apply and OK.

    Only green features remain on the map.

    Green network rocket launches on the map

    You've isolated the data that represents the attacks by the Green network. You'll update the time slider so you can confirm the likely location of the next rocket attack from the Green network.

  6. On the Time tab, in the Step group, change the Step Interval setting to 1 Days.

    Step Interval parameter on the ribbon

  7. In the Time Slider window, click Play.

    As Green network launch locations appear, note that its launch teams typically fire in clusters—a behavioral trait that suggests future launch locations once the initial firing point is revealed. The most recent missile attack is not part of any existing cluster, so it's likely that the next attack will be launched from a location near it.

    Clusters of green symbols on the map

    So far in this lesson, you used the time slider to discover that the Green network was responsible for the deadly missile attack on FOB Rookie at 4:00 a.m. Through observation, you learned that the Green network, during periods when the moonlight is at more than 75 percent illumination, fires rockets from the same location on successive nights.

  8. Save the project.
    Note:

    If you want to delete a project, you must delete it using a file manager. (The default storage for ArcGIS Pro projects is C:\Users\YourFolder\My Documents\ArcGIS\Projects.) If you want to delete a project, browse to your project and delete the .aprx file. Then, on the ArcGIS project page, click the deleted project and click Yes in the Project not found window.

Identify actionable intelligence

Now you'll review two reports with critical information relating to this lesson that a commander could convert into actionable intelligence. One is presented in the form of a PowerPoint slide and the second is a Story Map Journal web app.

Actionable intelligence is specific and credible information that commanders can exploit for immediate and proactive battlefield use. Speed is key because battlefields change rapidly and knowledge about them has a short life span. Actionable intelligence often includes who, what, when, where, and how—in addition to a confident prediction based on solid research. Because speed is key, you will likely have lingering questions about the accuracy of the information you’re reporting. And that’s fine, because seldom are all doubts ever erased while producing actionable intelligence.

PowerPoint is one method for communicating intelligence information quickly.

  1. Open the Actionable Intelligence PowerPoint PDF file that you downloaded earlier in the lesson to view an example of actionable intelligence relating to this lesson.

    PowerPoint presentations are static; in other words, what you see is what you get.

  2. Open the Actionable Intelligence story map, which has four panels that walk you through the analysis leading to the location of the next rocket attack.

    A Story Map Journal web mapping application allows you to quickly combine narrative text with maps and other embedded content. With Story Map Journal, you can scroll through the story, view videos, or zoom in to a particular map. You can also click pop-up boxes for more information about each feature.

Congratulations! Through your analysis, as well as several hours of your time, you have completed the Actionable Intelligence tutorial.

In this project, you created a map and tailored it to the Military Grid Reference System. You converted a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet to a table and used its geospatial data to symbolize insurgent activity in the Monterey area. You converted informal time fields into time stamps, enabling you to synchronize your time with the Pacific time zone and coordinated universal time. You ran the Multiple Ring Buffer tool to identify areas of insurgent rockets. You used the time slider to visualize the launch times and patterns of insurgent networks firing rockets at coalition forces. Finally, you identified critical information a commander would need for actionable intelligence.

You can find more lessons in the Learn ArcGIS Lesson Gallery.